About the Director and Co-Founder of Progressive Awareness Research, Inc., Eldon Taylor
States of Consciousness
Information Processing Without Awareness
compiled and edited
E. Taylor, R. Sadana and R. Bey
To those whose work fill these pages, the authors extend their deepest gratitude for both the research and the courage necessary to venture off the beaten path and into the fringes, as all pioneers must do.
Special acknowledgement is also due the following individuals for their efforts in dialogue, review, ideas, support and encouragement:
Thank you !
The material in this reference has been organized alphabetically and chronologically. The field of subliminal science is so rapidly expanding that we, as compilers and editors, were literally reviewing, writing and editing the contents of this work right up to the day before it left for press.
The information was verified by use of the Dialog Information Service.
Our desire was, and is, to create a reference work. We were mixed about its form only because of our feelings that it should be expandable. Finally the decision to bind blank pages for your notes opposite each print page was settled upon. This way comments and new studies could be made and updated while not disturbing either the organization or the quality of the work.
It is our sincerest hope that you find this format both convenient and durable.
On numerous occasions Progressive Awareness Research has been asked to provide some sort of review of the literature regarding perception without awareness or what popularly is known as subliminal communication. Since this is a field of our expertise we have repeatedly been called upon to explain the process in terms that anyone could understand.
What follows is a simple explanation developed by our president, Dr. Eldon Taylor and a review of the literature with brief comments relevant to the various findings produced in the different studies.
Our own research is ongoing with studies underway at the time of this writing at, or in conjunction with, Colorado State University, Weber State College and the University of Wisconsin at Oshkosh. Planned studies for the future include incorporating "negative" messages in an audio subliminal tape to determine if alleged messages in heavy metal recordings do indeed adversely effect the listener.
It is the opinion of Progressive Awareness Research that there is no reasonable doubt remaining regarding the presence of perception without awareness. What remains to be thoroughly researched is the behavioral effects for both short- and long-term periods. In Dr. Taylor's words, "What is really now at question is the power of language. If language indeed creates inappropriate responses that we term maladaptive then it stands to reason that language has the possibility to reverse this process. In other words, if one has been raised to believe that they are no good, due largely in part to words that were so stated, then is it possible to alter this belief by addressing the subconscious with positive words? I believe so."
We at Progressive Awareness Research hope that what follows provides insights to those who desire to contribute to the quality of the human experience. We encourage all to share their findings in an effort to sophisticate each other's understanding of the human condition. We are proud and happy to be able to share our findings as well as a review of the work of many dedicated researchers.
Although this literature review has been checked and re-checked for errors, the nature of the work is such that some errors may still remain. If you come across any errors or omissions, we would be very grateful if you would inform us.
Research in the fields of hypnosis and subliminal stimuli has demonstrated the effectiveness of words delivered while in trance to produce a great number of effects, both physiological and psychological. Still, a number of research findings further suggest that a great controversy regarding the results of certain audio subliminal tape studies divided the academic field of psychologists on the general efficacy of any subliminally presented message when delivered in an audio modality. A thorough review of this controversy yielded great differences in technical methods used to produce audio tapes.
Unlike visual subliminal technology, which is normally either accomplished via slide insertion, Tachistoscope or candle power ratios, audio subliminal programs are produced by commercial companies who use as many different methods to create a tape as there are companies. Researchers in the field seem to have all to often overlooked the basics of chemistry when attempting to replicate others findings and\or to produce new results from expanded hypotheses. Often, therefore, the psychological researcher has forgotten that science requires exacting methods including the basics of technical creation, like the temperature a gas is heated to, in order to verify another's findings. One such study was conducted (this year) by a doctoral student in the Philosophy of Psychology at the California School of Professional Psychology. She employed a tape produced by a commercial company to measure the effect of subliminal auditory stimuli on academic learning and motor skills performance among police cadets. Her findings indicate that "neither music nor music with subliminal messages improved" either learning or motor skills. (Lenz, 1989).
Careful examination of her documentation however indicates that the tape producer created the audio subliminal at 40 to 50 decibels beneath the music. (Ibid). When the psychologist is ignorant of electronics this is perhaps an understandable error since most players utilized to play subliminal messages have a dynamic range of less than 50 db. Nevertheless, a clear theoretical limit of perception thresholds does exist in the literature and as such should have been reviewed. Despite these comments many research projects have been conducted without an eye to the technical and theoretical aspects of magnetic media and audiology. Research designed without an awareness of the technical aspects offer protocol that produces statistics, all of which says absolutely nothing about subliminal stimuli; rather they speak to technical inadequacies.
A yet unannounced 3 part study by Anthony Greenwald et al, employed tapes from four commercial companies. The results indicate that no statistical difference exists between the placebo groups and the test groups. However, when asked, Greenwald admits that he knows nothing of the technical design of these tapes and cannot release the names of the manufacturers. In essence, therefore, the results speak only of the four companies, their methods, etc., and not audio subliminal stimuli.
In my various books I often discuss technical inadequacies that are passed off as "silent voices" or audio subliminal stimuli. The bottom line is simple: NO voice is not subliminal. You cannot create an audio subliminal stimuli by lowering the speech into or beneath the sound floor of magnetic media.
In the many lectures I have presented in the United States and Europe there has always been a nagging need to find an analogy that could accurately describe what occurs with the users of subliminal audio tapes. I have worked with the construct of peripheral perception to describe the manner in which voices speaking positive affirmations to the subconscious can, and do indeed, impress the listener even though they are unaware consciously of the process.
Peripheral perception is normally thought of as that aspect of sight that borders on the fringes of how far out to ones right or left side one cansee . The fringe always has clarity problems. That is, one may report the ability to see an object to their side, and even slightly behind them, but the further the object moves toward the limit of vision the less clear the object becomes. In a very real sense, and yet only as a model of understanding, this is a substantially similar process to the manner in which audio perception occurs.
The fringe is known as "threshold" and the audio threshold is established by determining the point at which the conscious mind can hear a particular sound, 50% of the time. A threshold is that place where sometimes one hears the signal and other times they do not. When a subliminal audio tape is created properly the messages are sometimes audible and sometimes not. The entire message may not be understood but the voices are acknowledged by the conscious mind as being there; or, in other words, from time to time one hears the message even though they do not understand every word. Similar to the limit of our peripheral sight, where we see an object but without the clarity that comes from looking directly at it, subliminal audio messages are sometimes heard but without the clarity that the conscious mind is accustomed to requiring in order for it to repeat the message. Still, research shows that the subconscious absolutely does recognize signals too weak for the conscious mind to recognize.
The comparison of peripheral sight to the audio perception of a subliminal stimuli continues to be a model that serves the purpose of communicating very complex issues in a clear way. The analogy of what happens to the user of the audio subliminal tape as they use it was much more difficult for me until a friend and I sat down to discuss just that. As we talked over our personal experiences with subliminal programs it became very obvious that our benefit had been gradual and from the inside out, almost intuitive in its inner direction. Often, only when the affirmations contained on the tape were reread did we have one of those "aha's" that acknowledged consciously why certain aspects of our drives and emotions and therefore behavior had changed.
Intuitive perception is just what seems to take place when you work with a subliminal program. One day you act differently because you are thinking differently. Gentle nudges from the inner mind, just like those that are intuitive, begin to guide one's choices. In my friends instance, Professor Bill Guillory, creativity became natural. New ideas, concepts and the like just seem to flow through him. Later he experienced successes with different programs but they were in process substantially the same as with the first tape: I Am Creative.
My experiences have been all akin to his. At first there seems to be little noticeable change but after a few days things just seem to have a different arrangement. One day I was afraid of public speaking to the point that I would do almost anything, invent almost any excuse, just to avoid it. Then it was like the next day public speaking was tolerable, and the following day I was excited about the opportunity to share with others. Today lectures, workshops, radio and television "stuff" is just something I do like any other activity I engage in.
What we believe in our subconscious is who and what we are! The conscious mind can only guess at what is contained in the subconscious while the subconscious has every thought the conscious will ever have long before the conscious thinks it. In order to change we need to change the way we think. Speaking directly to the subconscious is verbal subliminal messages that do just that. What's more, their power seems in part to reside in the fact that the conscious mind with its defense mechanisms can not argue with the positive affirmations. One day there just seems to be more positive than negative information in the subconscious and that wonderful bio-computer changes old equations and so do we! Our pursuits are consistent with our inner beliefs about ourselves and the world around us and almost magically those goals, ideals and ambitions are ours!
SUBCONSCIOUS MIND POWER
Everyone I have ever met or interacted with, everyone I have ever read or listened to, in fact every single human being from my experience has, at one time or another, desired to change something about themselves and found it to be exceedingly difficult, if not sometimes impossible. Still, there are many who alter various aspects of their behavior and beliefs successfully. The questions seem obvious: what does it take to realize each of our total potentials, and why do we sometimes succeed and at other times find only disappointing results?
When it comes to personal development there are a variety of so called "experts," with as many solutions as there are problems. Nevertheless, all of these specialists suggest, if not state directly, that the real power in the human development schema is that of the subconscious mind. If this is so, why then can I not just instruct my subconscious mind to think differently and produce the results I desire?
The fact is that the subconscious mind is basically indiscriminate in the manner in which it accepts information. The problem then is twofold. First, there are already years of indiscriminate acceptance in my mind, and second, I act in reliance upon this information.
All the statements that have ever been accepted are present in our subconscious minds, and for most of us that is negative programming. Some behaviorists have used numbers that indicate that for every one input of positive messaging there are 100 bits of negative!
How many times have each of us said to ourselves things like, "I can't do it," or, "It never works for me" and so forth? How many times have each of us heard statements like, "You're not old enough," "That's stupid," "Money is the source of all evil," "Life is difficult and then you die," "Thank god it's Friday," "That will never work" and so on?
Just for fun I once started a list of statements that I had heard or said to myself that created negative expectations. I quit when I realized that to complete the list would take more time and paper than I was willing to dedicate to such a nonsensical task. Still, the message was, and is, loud and clear: the language programming many of my beliefs was essentially negative!
The consequence of this negative programming has been likened to that of a computer. The bio-computer brain/mind has accepted negative input just like a calculator accepts negative numbers. Then you or I add a few positive numbers to the program total and some how expect change.
The fact that we act in reliance upon the information accepted indiscriminantly by our subconscious minds, is a more pervasive problem. This means that if negative messages have caused us pain or fear then we adapt our behavior, our beliefs, around avoiding those circumstances and/or outcomes.
With this adaptation comes choices. Most of our choices of this nature are deeply rooted in the subconscious. Our subliminal beliefs, those beliefs in the subconscious that arise from our desire to be accepted and to avoid pain, humiliation and rejection, determine our actions. All behavior is behavior of choice even if the choice is made at a subconscious level. Now what happens is that we build defense mechanisms in order to protect us from former bad experiences and possible future rejection.
These defense mechanisms often defeat our own best interest. It is true, for many of us, our worst enemy is often ourselves. Ignorant of these dynamics it is easy to see why well over 90% of the people who attend or participate in motivational gatherings or products are unsuccessful. The fact is, every time we tell ourselves something like "I am good!" The subconscious gives a thought to the conscious such as "Really! What about ------?"
Even when the behavior we desire is something as simple as success in our work place, these subliminal beliefs come into play. For example, when I ask a group of people how many of them would like to come up front and speak to the audience for five minutes on some topic I will assign them, rarely does anyone volunteer. A common fear is that somehow they will suffer deep embarrassment, humiliation and more. Now this same group of people will respond unanimously to the simple straight forward question: Do you want to be successful in business? Their answer is always yes!
In order to succeed in business one must learn to speak publicly. If there is a deep abiding fear of public speaking and a desire to be successful, there are contradictory drives present in the psyche. What usually happens is that a person reaches a certain level of success, and then for some inexplicable reason everything changes. What may be seen as outside circumstances changing, is in truth, more often than not, inner change. The closer one gets to that point where the opposite drive, in this instance the fear of public speaking, becomes imminent, the more powerful the exertion by subconscious processes to eliminate the impending threat.
Consequently these two factors or mechanics of our own psyche's often defeat our stated desires without our conscious awareness. The power of hypnosis exists largely in the direct communication with the subconscious. The conscious mind is essentially in abeyance during hypnosis although one's defense mechanisms can still play a significant role in the relative success of it's use. The advantage of subliminal communication is that it bypasses all conscious awareness. Unlike hypnosis, where attention and conscious assistance are often necessary, subliminal messages are not attended to by the conscious mind in any necessary manner whatsoever. (Still, there can be great power added to the subliminal stimuli from simply reading the messages once a week as one works with a program). The important point is that conscious attention is not only not required, but during usage, actually counter productive in many instances to the subliminal advantage.
The messages on an audio subliminal tape eventually overtake the negative information contained in the subconscious. When this happens the subliminal beliefs that formerly were self limiting begin to change. As they change---so do we!
Life is indeed a miracle and each of us is entitled to experience the highest qualities of our birthright. This is even more possible than in years past with today's modern technology, and with today's problems, it is even more appropriate than in any time in our planets history.
Good luck on your journey and enjoy exploring your full potential today!
The popular history of subliminal communication is really a history of modern subliminal manipulation.
Vance Packard's Hidden Persuaders, which appeared in 1957, quotes from the Sunday Times an account of a New Jersey theater in which ice cream ads were flashed onto the screen during a movie showing. That resulted in an otherwise unaccountable increase in ice cream sales. The Times referred to this technology as "subthreshold effects."
Packard's work warned of psychologists-turned-merchandisers and of the resulting psychoseduction of the American consumer. From belief systems to product identification, Packard presented a case for persuasion through the art and science of motivational analysis, feedback, and psychological manipulation. Hidden Persuaders was the first open attempt to inform the general public of a potentially Orwellian means to enslave the mind and to do so surreptitiously.
Wilson Brian Key in his books Subliminal Seduction and Clam Plate Orgy argues that not only are we being subliminally merchandised today but the public has been subliminally seduced for hundreds of years. Key, a Canadian professor, sums it all up in the title to his third book on the subject, The Age of Manipulation.
In my own work, Subliminal Communication, I discussed the earliest modern reference I have found on the subject of subliminal communication. According to Wolman, subliminal research is at least as old as Suslowa's work in 1863 wherein he reported "an increase in the two-point discrimination threshold as a function of subliminal electrical stimulation." (1973). In 1894 W.R. Dunham, M.D., wrote an interesting commentary on the subliminal mind and subliminal communication. Nearly one hundred years later, Dunham's essay reads much like current research on the subject. In The Science of Vital Force, Dunham demonstrated the existence of both subliminal mind and subliminal communication.
One of Freud's most important contributions to approaching the enigma known as the human condition is the stark revelation that mankind is a mere particle of his potential. Unconscious processes predetermine conscious choices and therefore behavior. Aggregates of attitude and behavior constitute personality. Personality is rather rigid, and consequently the human condition is an abysmal shadow of itself. What is more, according to Freud, it is inherently in conflict with itself.
A contemporary of Sigmund Freud, Dr. O. Poetzle, studied subliminal perception and the subsequent effect on dreams and behavior days and weeks after the original stimuli.
Professor Wolman's modified categorization of subliminal stimuli, divides descriptive values into five criteria of awareness and unawareness. The stimuli is:
1.Below the level of registration.
2.Above the level of registration but below the level of detection.
3.Above the level of detection but below the level of stimulus discrimination.
4.Above the level of detection and discrimination but below
the level of identification.
5.Below the level of identification only because of a defensive reaction. (1973).
Wolman makes several general statements regarding subliminal stimulation, having come to certain conclusions based upon his erudite research. Although maintaining a cautious stance, he asserts:
1. Subliminal stimulus does leave an influence upon the content of subsequent cognition.
2. Subliminal stimuli has affected and can affect secondary-process thinking.
3. There are neurophysiological findings which appear to concur with registration without awareness.
4. Despite some failures of replication there are numerous instances where subliminal stimuli "can measurably influence a variety of subject's subsequent behaviors."
5.Conscious thinking can be influenced by stimulus outside of awareness.
In 1981 Dr. Norman Dixon summarized over 748 references on subliminal stimulation in his scholarly book Preconscious Processing. Dixon provides a model for understanding the flow of information and its entry to consciousness. According to his model, five factors govern whether a stimulus surfaces at a conscious level: direction of attention, signal strength, external noise level, internal noise levels, and signal importance (meaning).
The wrongful death action brought against Judas Priest and CBS recently in Reno, has led to a judicial interpretation regarding subliminal communication and 1st amendment rights. Judge Whitehead's opinion can be found in the section of this work titled Legal Status.
First amendment rights have often been at issue when the jurisprudence process becomes involved with subliminal stimuli. Current trends, however, tend to exclude subliminal communication from protection under our freedom of speech rights. The Honorable Jerry Carr Whitehead, District Judge in the State of Nevada, eloquently argues that indeed subliminal communication violates first amendment liberties when covertly or surreptitiously employed. (See Whitehead, 1989 herein).
Whatever ultimate interpretations or direction of the controversy, one thing is quite certain, "subliminals" (used here as a noun referring to the general nature of their type of communication) are here to stay.
THEORETICAL MODELS OF SUBLIMINAL PERCEPTION
Several theoretical models accommodate subliminal perception within traditional psychology. In fact, it could be asserted that subliminal perception is absolutely implicit within them. Three such models, which are aspects of the psychoanalytic theory of cognition, are set out by Wolman:
First there is the "day-residue" model. One kind of day residue is the recent, indifferent, barely noticed, unassimilated impression. According to psychoanalytic theory, such material is "selected" for dreams precisely because of its manifest lack of psychic significance; it resonates with unconscious, infantile wishes and emerges in dreams as a derivative cognitive representation of the drive, owing to the requirements of censorship and the nature of unconscious thinking. The Poetzl experiment and its variants are based on this model, but depart from it in several ways.
The second model is that of Freud's view of preconscious thinking, in which he assumed that such thinking tends to be spread out over a wider network of associations than is the case in conscious thought. The direction of preconscious thinking can be biased by unconscious motives and sets ("guiding ideas"). The studies of Spence et. al. are based on this model. The subliminal stimulus is expected to bias the preconscious stream of thought, especially if there is a boost from unconscious or conscious motives.
The third model, evident mainly in Silverman's (1967) work, is Freud's conception of unconscious motivation conflict and defense. This model assumes that a subliminal input raises the activation level of existing unconscious motives and that it can therefore be considered analogous to an internally generated increase in the intensity of unconscious motives (1973).
These three models are combined in the concept of "schema" activation proposed by Klein and Holt (1960). They assume that memory schemata are activated by sets, by relevant incoming stimuli, and by drives. Under appropriate conditions, marginal inputs are likely to activate drive-related ideas and lead to an effect. This conceptualization is elaborated by Klein (1956, 1970) in terms of a model of motivation in perception which stresses the interplay of executive and concurrently active peripheral motives in relation to their accessibility to awareness, and as determinants of what is focal versus subsidiary in perceptual experience. If subliminal stimuli are considered as a special case of incidental or peripheral activation, then this model constitutes a promising way to understand the interaction of the variables studied in subliminal research.
I consider perception to be the fundamental determinator of behavior and favor a modified gestaltian theory of perception. That is, perception is always as wholes. Attention is not necessary to perception, and sensations are collective aggregates of information, which by definition of the word attention go largely undiscriminated by awareness. (See Subliminal Learning). Further, it is more likely that all three of the afore mentioned models operate concurrently rather than individually to the exclusion of the others.
Regardless of perception theories, registration and perception per se are independent, and without an unconscious awareness or subconscious learning dynamic there exists no basis to psychology. Drives, motives and so on, cannot be strictly of conscious perception origin. The unconscious must be more than a repository for the conscious mind's direct (cognitive) experience and/or indirect interpretive accumulation. Be that as it may (or as it may not be, if you prefer), as Wolman states:
"Contrary to popular belief, a good theory is not necessarily one that answers all questions, leaving nothing more to be done in a field , but rather it is one that opens up new problems and new avenues of investigation." (1973).
THE LEGAL STATUS OF SUBLIMINAL COMMUNICATION IN AMERICA
The nature of judicial interpretation regarding subliminal communication is rapidly becoming more of a legal concern than legislation to those employing subliminal stimuli in any form.
As such, this section was added to the original format of the text to include a legal historical perspective. Although the law in regard to subliminal stimuli has been discussed in the past in two of my books, the precise rulings and circumstances leading to the same have not. In fact, as difficult as some of the material is in terms of its access, this discussion would not occur now but for the efforts of Honorable Jerry C. Whitehead. Judge Whitehead essentially compiled the relevant history in response to a motion for dismissal that arose in the Judas Priest case in the Second Judicial District Court of Nevada in and for the county of Washoe. The following is therefore taken in large from Judge Whitehead's remarks.
The legal definition of subliminal communication is generally taken to be "the projection of messages by light or sound so quickly or faintly that they are received by the listener below the level of conscious awareness." (Cited for reference are "The Subconcious Taken Captive: A social, ethical, and legal analysis of subliminal communication technology", 54 S. Cal. L. Rev. 1077, 1080 (1981) and "Privacy and Freedom" 279 (1970)).
In 1957, James Vicary of Subliminal Projection Co., Inc. announced special equipment that would place subliminal messages in the advertising industry. He cited as a success story the now infamous New Jersey Theater that superimposed the messages "drink Coca-Cola" and "hungry? Eat popcorn" on the movie screen during a showing of the movie Picnic. Vicary claimed up to a 58% increase in relevant sales following the presentations. Shortly after Vicary`s announcement, the major networks announced that they would not accept subliminal advertising "or employ the technique on their radio or television productions."
This initial public controversy was generally met with an outcry. In the words of Judge Whitehead, the historical response to the current controversy continued as:
A typical response by the press is found in the following quote from the Saturday Review:
"The subconscious mind is the most delicate part of the most delicate apparatus in the entire universe. It is not to be smudged, sullied, or twisted in order to boost the sales of popcorn or anything else. Nothing is more difficult in the modern world than to protect the privacy of the human soul." (Smudging the Subconcious, Saturday Rev., Oct. 5, 1957).
Judge Whitehead continues:
In refusing to employ such technology, CBS stated:
"The legal, social and ethical implications raised by subliminal perception as we understand it are sufficient to preclude it from use in any form in the CBS Television Network and our Company owned stations. Furthermore, it has been and will continue to be our policy to insist that all advertising messages are clearly identified as such to our viewers." (Bliss, supra, p. 12, at 437 (quoting from 6 NARTS, Television Code Subscriber Bulletin, No. 8 at 1 (Dec. 1975)).
The Television Board of the National Association of Broadcasters (NAB) amended the Television Code to include the following provision:
"The use of the television medium to transmit information of any kind by the use of the process called "subliminal perception," or by the use of any similar technique whereby an attempt is made to convey information to the viewer by transmitting messages below the threshold of normal awareness is not permitted." (Bliss, supra, p. 12, at 435 (quoting from NEWS FROM NAB, Mar. 26, 1958).
Legislation to prohibit the use of subliminal communication was also introduced in Congress; however, no hearings were ever held and the bills died in committee. (Westin, supra, p. 11, at 282-283; Bliss, supra, p. 12, at 426-427).
The reaction against subliminal perception was greater than Vicary expected, prompting him to claim that if subliminal communications were banned by the government, he would go to the Supreme Court to protect his free speech right to use subliminal messages. (Westin, supra, p. 12, at 288).
Following Vicary's press conference, several radio and television stations experimented with subliminal communication with mixed results. (Note, First Amendment dialogue and Subliminal Messages, 11 N.Y.U. Rev. L. & Soc. Change 331, 332 (1983); Westin, supra p.12, at 289-290).
In 1962, CBS received some unwanted publicity when an announcer for "To Tell The Truth" informed the national viewing audience that subliminal messages were inserted in the regular program credits. After receiving numerous complaints from viewers and an arresting complaint from the FCC, CBS stated that the announcement was a hoax. (Note, supra, p. 14, at 332-333).
Much of the controversy surrounding subliminal messages faded until the Christmas of 1973 when several viewers complained to the FTC and the FCC about the presence of the subliminal message "Get It" in a national television commercial for "Husker-Du," a children's game. The Premium Corporation of America voluntarily removed the commercial from the air, claiming that the subliminal message was inserted in the commercial by a misguided employee. (Note, supra, p. 14, at 333; Bliss, supra, p. 12, at 425).
As a result of the complaints received from the "Husker-Du" incident, the FCC issued a public notice wherein the agency stated:
"We believe that use of subliminal perception is inconsistent with the obligations of a licensee, and therefore we take this occasion to make clear that broadcasters employing such techniques are contrary to the public interest. Whether effective or not, such broadcasts clearly are intended to be deceptive.
In closing, we note that the Federal Trade Commission also received a complaint about the pre-Christmas announcements, and that it is making inquiry into the matter in light of the laws that it administers."
(Note, supra, p. 14, at 358 (quoting from FCC PUBLIC NOTICE, Broadcast of Information by Means of "Subliminal Perception Techniques", FCC 74-78, 2 (Jan. 24, 1974), 39 Fed. Reg. 3714 (1974)).
Although subliminal communications appear to be a novelty, the following discussion illustrates that their presence in our society is more pervasive that many would suppose.
In 1971, Inflight Motion Pictures, Inc. announced in The New York Times that it would begin selling subliminal advertisements to be imbedded in the films distributed to the airlines. (Bliss, supra, p. 12, at 424 (citing N.Y. Times, Dec. 8, 1971, at 108 col. 6)).
Warner Brothers has acknowledged that a subliminal death mask was used in the motion picture, "The Exorcist." (In Through the Out Door, Omni Magazine, 45, pp 47-48 (Feb. 1981)).
Subliminal messages are also being used in attempts to control weight, reduce stress, treat compulsive behavior, increase real estate sales, discourage shoplifting, reduce employee turnover, and to quit smoking. (Key, W.B. Subliminal Seduction, 70 A.B.A.J. 25, 26 (July 1984); Note, supra, p. 14, at 333, 334; Note, supra, p. 11, at 1083-84).
Another company has developed and patented audio equipment which mixes subliminal messages in Music. (Note, supra, p. 14, at 334). Approximately fifty department stores have installed this audio equipment to imbed the message, "I am honest; I will not steal," in the music broadcast throughout the store. (Secret Voices, Time, Sept. 10, 1979, at 71; Kiesel, supra at 26).
Recently declassified government documents indicate that the Central Intelligence Agency has considered using subliminal communication to implant suggestions or commands and to influence the results of political elections. Some of these documents indicate that government use of subliminal techniques could be accomplished on a widespread basis without having to disclose their use because of national security reasons. (Note, supra, p. 11, at 1083, 1086 (citing Lee, The CIA's Subliminal Seduction, High Times, 96 (Feb. 1980)).
In 1984, the California Assembly passed a bill requiring that people be notified if they are about to be subjected to subliminal communications in a public place. (Gurnick, Subliminal Advertising: Threat to Consumer Autonomy?, 21 Bev. Hills Bar Journal, 56, p. 70 (1987)). However, the Senate Judiciary Committee never acted upon the bill and it died in the Senate.
The author of the bill claimed that undisclosed use of subliminal messages was an invasion of privacy. While the American Civil Liberties Union was opposed to the use of subliminal communication, it did not support the bill because, in its opinion, it would have created a private cause of action which would have chilled speech. The ACLU stated that any such litigation should be handled by the state attorney general as a fraud against consumers. (Kiesel, supra, p. 16, at 26).
The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms has adopted regulations prohibiting alcohol advertisements which contain subliminal messages on the basis that they are deceptive advertising. The pertinent regulation states:
(h) Deceptive advertising techniques. Subliminal or similar techniques are prohibited. "Subliminal or similar techniques," as used in this part, refers to any device or technique that is used to convey, or attempts to convey, a message to a person by means of images or sounds of a very brief nature that cannot be perceived at a normal level of awareness. (27 C.F.R. sec, 5.65 (h) (1988)).
The foregoing discussion illustrates that subliminal communication techniques are more common than one would expect. However, the full extent to which subliminal communication is being used today in television, music, movies, videos, and other mediums is not known. This is partly due to the fact that such messages are not intended to be consciously perceived and partly due to the fact that no governmental agency is monitoring their use.
Judge Whitehead continues with a very eloquent examination of First Amendment rights as they pertain to subliminal communication. As such, the author's choose to continue to quote him at length:
ARE SUBLIMINAL MESSAGES PROTECTED SPEECH?
The threshold question for the Court to resolve is whether the audio subliminal commands alleged by the plaintiffs to be imbedded in the "Stained Class" album are protected by the First Amendment.
If the audio subliminal commands are protected speech, we must dismiss the plaintiff's action. However, if the Court concludes that they are not protected speech, we must then decide whether, under the factual circumstances of this case, there is a triable issue of fact as to whether the subliminal communications were a legal cause of the December 23, 1985 shootings.
The Court approaches this issue with great respect for the First Amendment and with an appreciation for the basic rights which it necessarily protects. It allows people to speak upon political, social and religious issues. It allows us to criticize and question authority and power. It allows individuals to artistically express themselves without undue fear of censorship. Perhaps no other constitutional right guarantees such expansive freedom as does the First Amendment. It is the key to the retention of all our other freedoms.
Although the First Amendment has a preferred position in the hierarchy of constitutional rights, the Supreme Court has never held the right of free speech to be absolute at all times and under all circumstances. Consequently, it has articulated certain well-defined and narrowly drawn classes of speech which are not protected. Thus, for example, an individual may not seek protection in the First Amendment if he: (1) counsels and encourages another to commit murder; (2) libels another person; (3) commits perjury; or (4) engages in bribery.
In considering whether subliminal communication is protected by speech, the defendants have urged the Court to apply the incitement standard enunciated by the Supreme Court in Brandenburg v. Ohio, 395 U.S. 444, 89 S. Ct. 1827 (1969). As this Court has repeatedly stated, if the only issue before us were whether the lyrics of the song were protected speech, the Court would follow the incitement standard in Brandenburg and hold that the lyrics were protected speech. (See McCollum v. CBS, Inc., 202 Cal. App. 3d 989, 249 Cal. Rptr. 187 (1988)).
However, the Court believes that the constitutional issues raised by the use of subliminal communication are so entirely different than those raised by the use of supraliminal music lyrics that a proper determination of whether subliminal communication is protected speech cannot be accomplished by applying Brandenburg.
The Supreme Court has stated that doctrines of standards developed in one context should not be mechanically applied in another context. The Supreme Court has further stated that "each medium of expression must be assessed for First Amendment purposes by standards suited to it, for each may present its own problems."(Southeastern Promotions, Ltd. v. Conrad, 420 U.S. 546, 557, 95 S. Ct. 1239, 1246 (1975)). This principle was reaffirmed in Metromedia, Inc. v. City of San Diego, 453 U.S. 490, 101 S. Ct. 2882 (1981), wherein the plurality decision stated that "each method of communicating ideas is a `law unto itself' and that law must reflect the `differing natures, values, abuses and dangers' of each method." 95 S. Ct. at 2889 (quoting from Justice Jackson's remarks in Kovacs v. Cooper, 336 U.S. 77, 97, 69 S. Ct. 448, 459 (1949); see also FCC v. Pacifica Found., 438 U.S. 726, 748, 98 S. Ct. 3026, 3039 (1978). (Each medium of expression presents special First Amendment problems); Joseph Burstyn, Inc. v. Wilson, 343 U.S. 495, 503, 72 S. Ct. 777, 781 (1952) (Each method of expression tends to create its own peculiar problems)).
Justice Frankfurter's concurring opinion in Kovacs emphasized the danger of mechanically applying judicial formulas. Therein he stated:
"It is argued that the Constitution protects freedom of speech: Freedom of speech means the right to communicate, whatever the physical means for so doing; sound tracks are one form of communication; ergo that form is entitled to the same protection as any other means of communication, whether by tongue or pen. Such sterile argumentation treats society as though it consisted of bloodless categories. The various forms of modern so-called `mass communications' raise issues that were not implied in the means of communication known or contemplated by Franklin and Jefferson and Madison." (69 s.Ct. at 458).
Unfortunately, the Court has no direct precedent to rely upon in deciding whether subliminal communication is protected by the First Amendment. Consequently, we approach the subject matter of this motion much the same as Justice Douglas did in Public Utils. Comm'n v. Pollak, 343 U.S. 451 72 S. Ct. 813 (1952), when he stated "this is a case of first impression. There are no precedents to construe; no principles previously expounded to apply. We write on a clean slate." (72 S. Ct. at 823).
After giving careful consideration to the merits of this case, the Court concludes that the audio subliminal communications allegedly contained in the defendant's music recordings are not entitled to first Amendment protection. The Court bases this conclusion on three grounds. These are: (A) subliminal communication does not advance any of the purposes of free speech; (B) an individual has a First Amendment right to be free from unwanted speech; and (C) the listener's right of privacy outweighs the speaker's right of free speech when subliminal speech is used. The Court turns to discuss each of these.
A. Subliminal Messages Do Not Advance Any Theories Supporting Free Speech.
Although the case law involving freedom of speech is voluminous, the Supreme Court's first major encounters with free speech claims did not occur until shortly after World War I. However, despite its short history in the courts, no other constitutional right appears to have generated as much controversy and emotion as freedom of speech.
Several major theories have been advanced to justify the protection given to free speech. They are: (1) the marketplace of ideas: (2) representative democracy and self-government; and (3) individual self-fulfillment and self-realization.
The marketplace of ideas is perhaps the most widely recognized theory. It was first articulated by Justice Holmes in his dissent in Abrams v. United States, 250 U.S. 616, 40 S. Ct. 17 (1919), wherein he stated:
"The ultimate good desired is better reached by free trade in ideas--that the best test of truth is the power of the thought to get itself accepted in the competition of the market, and that truth is the only ground upon which their wishes safely can be carried out. That at any rate is the theory of our Constitution." (40 S. Ct. at 22).
This theory was subsequently approved by the Supreme Court in Red Lion Broadcasting Co. v. FCC, 395 U.S. 367, 390, 89 S. Ct. 1794, 1806 (1969), wherein Justice White stated that "it is the purpose of the First Amendment to preserve an uninhibited marketplace of ideas in which truth will ultimately prevail."
The beginnings of this theory are found in the early writings of John Milton and John Stuart Mill. (Retunda, Nowak & Young, Treatise on Constitutional Law: Substance and Procedure, sec. 20.6 (1986)).
In his tract, Areopagitica, Milton said:
"Though all the winds of doctrine were let loose to play upon the earth, so truth be in the field, we do injuriously, by licensing and prohibiting, to misdoubt her strength. Let her and falsehood grapple; whoever knew truth put to the worse in a free and open encounter." (Id. (quoting J. Milton, Areopacitica, A Speech for the Liberty of Unlicensed Printing, (1644); G. Gunther, Constitutional Law 978 (11th ed. 1985)).
Two centuries later in his 1859 essay, On Liberty, Mill discussed the public benefit which results from the free exchange of ideas. He wrote:
First, if any opinion is compelled to silence, that opinion for aught we can certainly know, be true. To deny this is to assume our own infallibility. Secondly, though this silenced opinion be error, it may and very commonly does, contain a portion of the truth; and since the generally prevailing opinion on any subject is rarely or never the whole truth, it is only by the collision of adverse opinions that the remainder of the truth had any chance being supplied. Thirdly, even if the received opinion be not only true but the whole truth; unless it is suffered to be, and actually is, vigorously and earnestly contested, it will, by most of those who receive it, be held in the manner of a prejudice, with little comprehension of feeling of its rational grounds. And not only this, but fourthly, the meaning of the doctrine itself will be in danger of being enfeebled. (Rotunda, Nowak & Young, supra p. 19, sec. 20.26 (quoting J.S. Mill, On Liberty, (1859).
A second major theory offered to justify why free speech is protected by the First Amendment is that free speech is essential to intelligent self-government in a democratic system. (L. Tribe, American Constitutional Law 786 (2nd ed. 1988); G. Gunther, Constitutional Law, 976 (11th ed. 1985)). Under this approach, the First Amendment would provide absolute protection for public discussion of political issues and would provide only minimal due-process protection for discussion of non-political issues.
The third major theory offered to justify protection of speech is that it promotes individual self-fulfillment and self-realization. (Rotunda, Nowak & Young, supra, p. 19, at 15; Redish, The Value of Free Speech, 130 U. Pa. L. Rev. 591, (1982); Gunther, supra p. 20, at 976). Justice Brandeis' concurrence in Whitney v. California, 274 U.S. 357, 47 S. Ct. 641 (1927), has been cited as support for this theory. Therein he states that "those who won our independence believed that the final end of the State was to make men free to develop their faculties. . ." (274 U.S. at 375).
Under this theory, when speech is freely chosen by the speaker to persuade others, it defines and expresses the "self" and enables the individual to develop his powers and abilities and to make decisions regarding his destiny. (Redish, The Value of Free Speech, 130 U. Pa. L. Rev. 591 (1982)).
The Court concludes that the use of audio subliminal communications does not advance any of these theories cited to justify free speech. Each of these theories entails some measure of discussion, the free flow of ideas, and open and robust debate among the participants. Under the marketplace theory, the free exchange of ideas ultimately permits truth to prevail; under the self-government theory, discussion and debate over political issues furthers our democratic system of government; and under the self-fulfillment orself-realization theory, an individual's ability to freely express himself to others enhances his personal autonomy and development.
Audio subliminal communications are the antithesis of these theories. They do not convey ideas or information to be processed by the listener so that he or she can make an individual determination about its value. They do not enable an individual to further his personal autonomy. Instead, they are intended to influence and manipulate the behavior of the listener without his knowledge.
Since subliminal communication does not contribute to dialogue, truth, the free market of ideas, democracy or personal autonomy, it is not really "speech." Even in its most basic form, the use of speech presumes that views will be exchanged or that information will be conveyed and understood. However, subliminal messages are not intended to convey information to be consciously understood, they are intended to surreptitiously influence the thought processes of an individual, and ultimately, his behavior.
Audio subliminal communications infringe upon the freedom of thought and mind which the First Amendment seeks to protect. (Cf. Wooley v. Maynard, 430 U.S. 705, 97 S. Ct. 1428 (1977)).
Because subliminal messages are inconsistent with any of the theories offered to justify freedom of speech, the Court concludes that they are not entitled to First Amendment protection.
B. The Individual's First Amendment Right to Be Free From Unwanted Speech.
In Public Utils. Comm'n v. Pollack, 343 U.S. 451, 72 S. Ct. 813 (1952), the argument was made that the First Amendment guarantees an individual the freedom to listen only to such points of view as he wishes to hear. However, because there was no substantial evidence that radio programs had been used for objectional propaganda, the Supreme Court declined to consider that argument.
Although the Supreme Court in Pollack did not decide whether an individual has a First Amendment right to listen only to points of view which he wishes to hear, the holdings of other Supreme Court cases support the conclusion that such a constitutional right does exist under appropriate circumstances.
In defining the broad spectrum of free speech rights guaranteed by the First Amendment, the Supreme Court has established that an individual has the right to speak, the right to remain silent, and the right to receive information.
The obvious right guaranteed by the express language of the First Amendment is an individual's right to free speech. (Cf. Griswold v. Connecticut, 381 U.S. 479, 482, 85 S. Ct. 1678, 1680 (1965)).
Concomitant with the right to speak is the right not to speak. In Board of Educ. v. Barnette, 319 U.S. 624, 63 S. Ct. 1178 (1943), a local school board adopted regulations requiring school children to recite the Pledge of Allegiance. A child's failure to participate was punishable as insubordination. Members of the Jehovah's Witnesses brought suit to enjoin enforcement of the regulations. The district court granted the injunction and the school board appealed.
The Supreme Court affirmed the district court holding that it was unconstitutional for the school board to compel children to recite the Pledge Of Allegiance. The majority reasoned that it would be inconsistent if the First Amendment protected an individual's right to speak his own mind, but did not protect him from others who would compel him to speak what was not in his mind. (63 S. Ct. at 1183).
The Supreme Court further reasoned that it was more important to protect individual freedom of mind than to sanction compelled uniformity. (63 S. Ct. at 1135).
Finally, the Court concluded that compelling children to recite the Pledge of Allegiance invaded "the sphere of intellect and spirit" protected by the First Amendment. (63 S. Ct. at 1187).
The holding in Barnette was reaffirmed in Wooley v. Maynard, 430 U.S. 705, 97 S. Ct. 1428 (1977). In Wooley, a New Hampshire statute required noncommercial vehicles to bear license plates embossed with the state motto, "Live Free or Die." Any person who knowingly obscured the numbers or letters on a license plate was guilty of a misdemeanor.
Members of the Jehovah's Witnesses brought suit in federal court seeking both declaratory and injunctive relief from enforcement of the statute. They claimed that the state motto conflicted with their religious beliefs. A three-judge district court granted the requested injunction and the state appealed.
On appeal, the Supreme Court held that it was a violation of the First Amendment for the state to require an individual to display an ideological message on his private property.
In reaching its holding, the Court reasoned that the right of freedom of thought protected by the First Amendment included both the right to speak and the right to refrain from speaking. (97 S Ct. at 1405). As the Court stated:
"A system which secures the right to proselytize religious, political and ideological causes must also guarantee the concomitant right to decline to foster such concepts. The right to speak and the right to refrain from speaking are complementary components of the broader concept of `individual freedom of mind.'" (97 S. Ct. at 1435).
Consistent with its holdings that an individual has First Amendment rights to speak and to remain silent, the Supreme Court has also held that an individual has a First Amendment right to receive information.
This right first appears to have been recognized by the Supreme Court in Martin v. City of Struthers, 319 U.S. 141, 63 S. Ct. 862 (1943). In Martin, a city ordinance prohibited individuals from distributing handbills, circulars, or advertisements by summoning a resident to the door. In holding the ordinance unconstitutional, the Supreme Court stated that the First Amendment protects not only the right to distribute literature, but also the right to receive it. 63 S. Ct. at 863.
The First Amentment right to receive information has been reaffirmed several times. (See Griswold v. Connecticut, 381 U.S. 479, 482, 85 S. Ct. 1678, 1680 (1965); Stanley v. Georgia, 394 U.S. 557, 564, 89 S. Ct. 1243, 1247 (1969); Kleindienst v. Mandel, 408 U.S. 753, 762, 92 S. Ct. 2576, 2581 (1972)).
In another case, a statute providing that any pharmacist who advertised or promoted the prices or prescription drugs was guilty of unprofessional conduct was challenged. One of the issues to be resolved by the Supreme Court was whether the plaintiffs, prescription drug consumers, had standing to bring suit as the recipients of the intended advertising. The Court held that they did have standing because the First Amendment protected not only the right to distribute information and ideas but also the right to receive information. The Court stated:
"Freedom of speech presupposes a willing speaker. But where a speaker exists, as in the case here, the protection afforded is to the communication, to its source and to its recipient both. . . This Court has referred to a First Amendment right to `receive information and ideas' and that freedom of speech `necessarily protects the right to receive'. . . If there is a right to advertise, there is a reciprocal right to receive the advertising and it may be asserted by these appellees." (96 S. Ct. at 1823).
Although the Supreme Court has never had occasion to articulate whether an individual has a First Amendment right to be free from unwanted speech, the rationale from the preceding cases which recognize the First Amendment rights to speak, to remain silent, and to receive information as well as dieta from several relevant cases support the conclusion that an individual does have the reciprocal right to be free from unwanted speech.
In Kovacs v. Cooper, 336 U.S. 77, 69 S. Ct. 448 (1949), the Supreme Court upheld the validity of a municipal ordinance which prohibited the use of sound trucks despite arguments that it abridged an individual's right of free speech. In reaching its holding, the Supreme Court reasoned that "the right of free speech is guaranteed every citizen that he may reach the minds of willing listeners." (69 S. Ct. at 454). (Emphasis added).
The concurring opinion of Justice Douglas in Lehman v. City of Shaker Heights, 418 U.S. 298, 94 S. Ct. 2714 (1974), is supportive of the language in Kovacs. In Lehman, a candidate for public office attempted to place political advertisements supporting his candidacy on the city transit system. The city refused and the candidate brought suit claiming his First Amendment rights were being violated. The Supreme Court held that due to, inter alia, the captive nature of the streetcar audience, a city bus is not a First Amendment forum.
In his concurring opinion, Justice Douglas focused on the rights of the passengers by stating that the constitutional rights of the speaker are subordinate to the constitutional rights of the commuters when the circumstances are such that they are incapable of declining to receive the message. (94 S. Ct. at 2719).
Kovacs and Lehman imply that individuals have a First Amendment right to be free from unwanted speech. The Supreme Court has stated that the right to speak and the right to refrain from speaking are complementary components of the First Amendment rights of freedom of thought and mind. (See Barnette and Wooley, supra).
Speech is only the outward expression of what a person thinks in his mind. Just as an individual has the freedom to express his thoughts in words about political, social and religious issues, he also has the reciprocal freedom to remain silent on these issues. He may not be forced against his will to speak out about them.
Correspondingly, if an individual has the right to receive information and ideas expressed by others with whom he may philosophically, socially, religiously, or politically agree or disagree, he must also have the reciprocal right to refuse to receive such information and ideas.
If an individual cannot be made to recite a pledge which conflicts with his religious beliefs because the First Amendment protects his freedom of thought, doesn't that same freedom of thought give him the choice to be free from obtrusive speech which may conflict with his religious beliefs?
Subliminal speech is intended to influence the listener's behavior by having the message surface in the listener's conscious mind as his own thoughts and beliefs.
When an individual is exposed to subliminal messages without his knowledge and consent, he is deprived of his constitutional right to choose the speech to which he would either listen or decline to listen and his First Amendment right of freedom of thought is violated.
The Court concludes that the First Amendment right of an individual to be free from intrusive speech are paramount under circumstances involving subliminal messages where the individual has no knowledge that he is being bombarded by these messages, and therefore, has no means of making a conscious decision to either hear them or avoid them.
C. May Hidden Messages Be Forced Upon An Unknowing And Unconsenting Audience?
An individual's right of privacy was first articulated by Justice Douglas in Griswold v. Connecticut, 381 U.S. 479, 85 S. Ct. 1678 (1965). According to Griswold, the right of privacy is found in the penumbras emanating from the Bill of Rights. (85 S. Ct. at 1681).
The holding in Griswold was at least partially foreshadowed by Justice Frankfurter's concurrence in Kovacs and Justice Douglas' dissent in Pollack.
In upholding a municipality's ban of sound trucks which emitted loud and raucous noise, Justice Frankfurter relied heavily on the rights of individual's to be free from intrusive speech. He recognized that unless the "narrowing opportunities for serenity and reflection" are safeguarded, "freedom of thought becomes a mocking phrase, and without freedom of thought there can be no free society." (69 S. Ct. at 459).
In Pollak, the Supreme Court held that the broadcasting of music over loudspeakers in city buses was constitutionally permissible. Justice Douglas dissented relying upon the passengers' right of privacy. He believed that the right to be let alone was the beginning of all freedom. He stated that the right to be let alone included the right to think as one chooses and to believe as one wishes. (72 S. Ct. at 823).
While Justice Douglas recognized that an individual loses some measure of privacy when he goes upon the streets or enters public places, he did not believe that an individual riding in a public bus out of necessity could be forced to listen to speech which he did not want to hear.
He was concerned that when people are forced to listen to another's ideas, the propagandist is given a powerful weapon. He concluded, stating that "the right of privacy today violated, is a powerful deterrent to any one who would control men's minds." (72 S. Ct. at 824).
On occasion, an individual's right of privacy conflicts with another individual's right of free speech. Which right prevails involves a balancing test which often depends upon the circumstances under which the conflict occurs. (See FCC v. Pacifica Found., 433 U.S. 726, 748 n. 27, 93 S. Ct.3026, 3040 n. 9 (1978); Rowan v. Post Office Dep't, 397 U.S. 728, 736-37, 90 S. Ct. 1484, 1490 (1970); Erzonznik v. Jacksonville, 422 U.S. 205, 208-09, 95 S. Ct. 2268, 2272 (1975)).
As the following cases illustrate, an individual's right of privacy will prevail over another's right of free speech if the unwilling listener's degree of captivity makes it impractical for him to avoid the unwanted speech.
In Rowan v. Post Office Dep't, 397 S.S. 228, 90 S. Ct. 1484 (1970), it was necessary for the Supreme Court to determine whether an individual's right of privacy in his home outweighed an individual's free speech rights.
In Rowan, a federal statute allowed an addressee receiving material which he considered erotically arousing or sexually provocative to notify the post office to remove his name from the sender's mailing list. After the post office received the request, it would issue an order directing the sender to refrain from further mailings to the named addressee.
The statute was challenged by publishers, distributors, owner, and operators of mail order houses, and mailing list brokers, and owners and operators of mail service organizations as an unconstitutional infringement upon their First Amendment right to communicate.
The Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the statute stating:
"Weighing the highly important right to communicate . . . against the very basic right to be free from sights, sounds, and tangible matters we do not want, it seems to us that a mailer's right to communicate must stop at the mailbox of an unreceptive addressee." (90 S. Ct. at 1490).
In reaching its decision, the Court reasoned that nothing in the Constitution compels an individual to listen to or view any unwanted communication, regardless of its merit. 909 s. Ct. at 1490. The Supreme court further stated that if its decision operated to impede the flow of valid ideas, the answer was that no one has a right to force even "good" ideas on an unwilling recipient. (90 S. Ct. at 1491).
In Lehman v. City of Shaker Heights, 418 U.S. 298, 94 S. Ct. 2714 (1974), a local politician attempted to place political advertisements in the car card space on city buses. His application was denied because the management agreement with the city did not permit political advertising. The politician sought judicial relief claiming that his First Amendment rights had been violated.
On review, the Supreme Court held that due to, inter alia, the inability of the passengers to effectively avoid the car cards, the politician had no First Amendment right to require his political advertising to be placed in the city buses.
Justice Douglas' concurrence emphasized the passengers' right of privacy when he stated:
"In asking us to force the system to accept his message as a vindication of his constitutional rights, the petitioner overlooks the constitutional rights of the commuters. While petitioner clearly has a right to express his views to those who wish to listen, he has no right to force his message upon an audience incapable of declining to receive it. In my view the right of the commuters to be free from forced intrusions on their privacy precludes the city from transforming its vehicles of public transportation into forums for the dissemination of ideas upon this captive audience." (94 S. Ct. at 2719).
In FCC v. Pacifica Found., 438 U.S. 726, 98 S. Ct. 3026 (1978), the Supreme Court upheld the authority of the FCC to regulate the hours during which radio stations could broadcast indecent language despite claims that such regulation violated the First Amendment's guarantee of free speech.
The Court stated that of all forms of communication, broadcasting received the most limited First Amendment protection because of its "uniquely pervasive presence" in the lives of Americans. (98 S. Ct. at 3040). According to the Court, patently offensive, indecent material presented over the airwaves could be restricted since an individual's right to be left alone at home plainly outweighed the First Amendment rights of an intruder. Id. The Court rejected the argument that the offended listener could simply turn off the radio stating that it was like saying that the remedy for an assault is to run away after the first blow. Id.
One of the more recent cases to consider the competing privacy rights of an individual and the First Amendment rights of a speaker is Frisby v. Schultz (108 S. Ct. 2495 (1988)).
In Frisby, a city ordinance was enacted which prohibited residential picketing. The stated purpose of the ordinance was to protect, inter alia, the privacy of the individual's home.
Despite arguments to the contrary, the Supreme Court affirmed that a public street is a traditional public forum regardless of whether or not the street runs through a residential neighborhood.
The test applied by the Court in determining whether or not the ordinance was constitutional was whether it was narrowly tailored to serve a significant government interest and whether it left open ample alternative channels of communication. (108 S. Ct. at 2501).
The Court concluded that protecting the privacy of the home was a significant government interest. The area of privacy focused on by the Court was protection of the unwilling listener. In this regard, the Court stated:
"Thus, we have repeatedly held that individuals are not required to welcome unwanted speech into their homes and that the government may protect this freedom (citations omitted). . . There simply is no right to force speech into the home of an unwilling listener." (108 S. Ct. at 2502).
The Court held that the ordinance did not violate the First Amendment. In reaching this holding, the Court reasoned that individuals were captive in their homes and "the First Amendment permits the government to prohibit offensive speech as intrusive when the `captive' audience cannot avoid the objectionable speech." (108 S. Ct. at 2503).
Contrasted with the Court`s decisions in the cases discussed above are Cohen v. California, 403 U.S. 15, 91 S. Ct. 1780 (1971), and Erznoznik v. Jacksonville, 422 U.S. 205, 95 S. Ct. 2268 (1975).
In Cohen, the defendant wore a jacket in the Los Angeles County Courthouse with the words "F the Draft" printed on the back. He was arrested and convicted of "maliciously and willfully disturbing the peace or quiet of any neighborhood or person . . . by offensive conduct." (403 U.S. at 16).
The Supreme Court overturned his conviction stating that his message was protected by the First Amendment despite the argument being made that his mode of expression was thrust upon unwilling or unsuspecting viewers, and therefore, was unprotected speech. The Court rejected this argument stating that the unwilling or unsuspecting viewers could easily avert their eyes.
In Erznoznik, the manager of a drive-in theater challenged the constitutionality of a city ordinance which prohibited drive-in theaters, visible from any public street or public place, from showing movies which contained certain prescribed nudity. In support of the ordinance, the city argued that any movie containing nudity which was visible from a public place could be lawfully suppressed as a nuisance in order to protect citizens from unwilling exposure to material that could be offensive.
The Supreme Court struck down the ordinance as being an unconstitutional impairment of First Amendment rights. In reaching its holding, the Court stated that there are occasions when the degree of captivity makes it impossible for the unwilling viewer or auditor to avoid exposure, and therefore, the captive individual's right of privacy prevails. (95 S. Ct. at 2272-73). However, under the circumstances in Erznoznik, the Court did not believe that a drive-in theater was so obtrusive that it was impossible for an unwilling individual to avoid being exposed to the offensive material. (95 S. Ct. at 2274).
The Court concludes that the foregoing cases firmly establish that the privacy rights of an unwilling listener will prevail over the free speech rights of a speaker if the listener is subjected to a speaker's message under circumstances which make it impossible or impractical for the listener to avoid being exposed to the unwanted message. Conversely, if the listener or viewer can avoid exposure after the initial impact, then the First Amendment rights of the speaker should prevail.
Applying this standard to the present case, the Court concludes that the very nature of subliminal messages make it impossible for the unknowing listener to avoid exposure.
Privacy, if it is to mean anything, must permit a recipient of communication to control what he sees or hears. He must have the freedom to choose what he sees or hears. He must have the freedom to choose what he will listen to, read, or view. His reception of communication must be voluntary. No individual should be as a captive audience.
The defendants contended during oral arguments that an employer has a First Amendment right to imbed subliminal messages into the Music system of its factory which direct its employees to vote for a particular political candidate in an attempt to influence their vote. They contend that this is the freedom contemplated by the First Amendment.
We do not agree. The Court believes that this approach is the antithesis of freedom. The privacy rights and freedom of the employees to control what they see or hear, and think as they choose, may well be denied when they are continuously exposed to such a subliminal message.
Perhaps no one is more of a captive audience than one who is exposed to subliminal messages. Because individuals subjected to subliminal messages are an unknowing audience, they have even less control than the unwilling audience. The listeners or viewers don't know if they are willing to receive the subliminal message because they are unaware that it existed. In the captive audience cases described above, individuals could at least attempt to shut out the unwanted speech; however, when subliminal messages are employed, the unaware listener does not even have that option.
If the right of privacy is to respect the mental processes of an individual, as it does, it must have the ability to foreclose others from secretly intruding into the subconscious of an unwitting individual in an attempt to manipulate his thought processes and ultimately his behavior.
In their closing arguments at the oral hearing, the defendants claimed that there was no difference between manipulating an individual by using subliminal techniques or manipulating an individual by traditional speech. The Court does not agree. Traditional speech is consciously heard by the listener whereas subliminal speech is not intended to be nor is it consciously heard by the unwitting listener. Traditional speech may be consciously evaluated by the listener and either accepted or rejected. Subliminal speech is incapable of being consciously evaluated and is intended to influence the listener's behavior without giving him the opportunity for conscious reflection and consideration before acting.
The freedom to exercise one's thoughts is essential to the exercise of other constitutional rights. If an individual is not protected in his thoughts and behavior, the right of privacy becomes meaningless. The use of subliminal messages deprive an individual of these aspects of privacy. Subliminal messages may deny an individual his right to make free choices. Consequently, the Court concludes that when an individual is subjected to subliminal messages without his knowledge and consent, his privacy rights outweigh any free speech rights of the person or entity publishing the subliminal message.
Subliminal Literature: Bibliography And Review.
Aarons, L. (1976). Sleep-assisted instruction. Illinois Department of Mental Health and Developmental Disabilities. Chicago. Psychological Bulletin, 83 (1), pp 1-40.
Louis Aarons states that the differences in results obtained from studies on sleep learning, can be explained by differences in procedures and the lack of an established criterion for sleep.
From his research, Aarons deduced that the conditions necessary for effective sleep-learning are; low voltage EEG sleep patterns, positive motivation, meaningful learning materials, coordination with wake-learning activities and extended training.
Adam G. (1978). Visceroception, awareness and behavior. In G.E. Schwartz and D. Shapiro (Eds.) Consciousness and Self-regulation, Vol. 2, pp 199-213. Chichester, Wiley.
From his research, Adam found that:
1. Without any awareness of an intestinal stimulus (i.e. the inflating of a balloon lodged in the duodenum), the latter evoked an EEG arousal response.
2. The inflation of a similar intestinal balloon, which had been located 15 cm away from the first, resulted in renewed blocking of the EEG. This occurred inspite of the eventual habituation to the first stimulus.
Findings 1 and 2 demonstrate cortical discrimination of the spatial separation between two subliminal visceral stimuli.
3. When subliminal electric shocks were delivered to the cervix uteri of human subjects, there was, once again, electrographic evidence of cortical discrimination without awareness.
With finding 3 however, it was possible to bring eventual awareness of the cervical stimuli by using verbally mediated biofeedback.
Adams, J.K. (1957). Laboratory studies of behavior with awareness. Psychological Bulletin, 54, pp 383-405.
In this article Adams summarizes the findings of 76 earlier studies of behavior without awareness.
From his research Adam concludes that subjects have been able to discriminate among many types of auditory and visual stimuli presented below the threshold of awareness to a degree greater than chance.
Adams, T.L. (1986). Subliminal self improvement. East Detroit: Adams Life Enhancement Programs.
Terry Adams covers the evolution of subconscious learning, hypnosis, and subliminal communication in advertising and self-improvement.
Adams, V. (1982, May). Mommy and I are one. Psychology Today, 16 (5), pp 24-36.
Virginia Adams examines the research which has been carried out on subliminal perception.
The work of Lloyd Silverman is emphasized.
Silverman has conducted or directed more than 50 studies demonstrating that the subliminal presentation of emotionally charged messages can trigger unconscious thoughts and feelings and thus alter behavior.
It is Silverman who used a tachistoscope (apparatus for brief exposure of visual stimuli) to subliminally project words such as, "Mommy and I are one."
It was from his research that Silverman derived the theory of psychodynamic activation. This theory states that wish related subliminal stimuli have the power to activate psychodynamic processes - processes in which unconscious wishes, fantasies, anxieties and defensive operations - effect overt behavior.
Adamson, R., Henke, P. & O'Donovan, D. (1969). Avoidance conditioning following preadaptation to weak shock. Psychonomic Science, 14 (3), pp 119-121.
Robert Adamson, Peter Henke and Denis O'Donovan preadapted four groups of rats to no-shock, 0.004, 0.008 and 0.02 ma.
The rats were then conditioned in a jump box to 0.03 ma. shock preceded by a bell.
The 0.004 and 0.008 groups required significantly fewer trials.
The results were related to those of studies using subliminal anchor stimuli with human subjects.
Aiba, T.S. (1963). Can the absolute threshold be conditioned? Journal of Experimental Psychology, 65, pp 233-9.
In this study, Aiba states that the absolute threshold can be altered by conditioning.
Allen, G.J. & Condon, T.J. (1982). Whither subliminal psychodynamic activation? A reply to Silverman. University of Connecticut, Storrs. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 91 (2), pp 131-133. ISSN: 0021-843X
George Allen and Thomas Condon reply to comments by L.H. Silverman on their earlier criticisms of subliminal symbiotic stimulation as a clinical adjunct to systematic desensitization.
The authors state that none of the "contradictory" evidence deals with desensitization or any other treatment for phobic anxiety.
The authors believe that the alternative explanations Silverman derives from the new data are based on an arbitrary and simplistic method of data aggregation that lacks consistency across investigations.
As a result, the authors state that the resulting selective bias severely reduces the explanatory power of these alternative possibilities. As such the authors still believe that stimulation of unconscious merging fantasies is superfluous in desensitization.
Allison, J. (1963). Cognitive structure and receptivity to low intensity stimulation. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 67, pp 132-8.
Research by Allison has shown that a relaxed state favors subliminal determination. However, this is only true of right hemisphericity subjects.
For a subliminal stimulus to be effective, there must be no competing cognitive structure"
There is clear support for the hypothesis that, a cognitive structure which allows for less logical, less differentiated elements, can better permit the incorporation of new stimuli.
Subliminal effects are maximized by having the subject in a state of relaxed passivity."
Allport, D.A. (1980). Patterns and actions and attention and performance. In G.L. Claxton (Ed.) New Directions in Cognitive Psychology. Chapters 2 and 4. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
Allport states that there are certain rules which govern the interplay between memory, motivation and action.
These rules are either acquired or innate.
Anderson, A., Fries, I. & Smith, G.J.W. (1970). Change in after image and spiral after-effect serials due to anxiety caused by subliminal threat. Scandinavian Journal Of Psychology, 11 (1), pp 7-16.
Alf Anderson, Ingrid Fries and Gudmund Smith performed an experiment which involved the serial projection of negative afterimages, combined with the aftereffects of a rotating spiral.
In the middle of the sequence, the experimental subjects were subjected to subliminal threats by means of a metacontrast technique.
The results were as predicted and differed markedly from the results in the control groups.
Anderson, A., Nilson, A., Ruuth, E. & Smith, G.J.W. (1970). Change in after-image and after-effect serials due to anxiety caused by subliminal threat. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, pp 7-16.
Anderson, A., Nilson, A., Ruuth, E., & Smith, G.J.W. (1972) Visual after effects and the individual as an adaptive system. Lundi: Gleerup.
Andersson, Nilson, Ruuth and Smith demonstrated that a threatening stimulus masked by metacontrast may affect the color and duration of post-stimulus phenomena, such as after-images and the spiral after-effect.
In these studies, the influence of unconsciously registered meaning on a meaningless perceptual experience suggests that the subliminal stimulus was acting upon perceptual processes rather than response behavior.
Antell, M. (1969). The effect of subliminal activation of sexual and aggressive drive derivatives on literary creativity. New York University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 30, p. 3859B.
Antell reported positive results in an investigation which replicates Silverman's dart experiment.
Antell, M.J. (1970). The effect of priming and the subliminal presentation of sexual and aggressive stimuli on tests of creativity. New York University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 30 (8-B), pp 3859-3860.
Maxine Antell tested the effects of the subliminal activation of sexual and aggressive drives on creativity.
Antell, M.J., & Goldberger, L. (1978). The effects of subliminally presented sexual and aggressive stimuli on literary creativity. Lund University. Psychological Research Bulletin, 18 (7), p. 20. ISSN: 0348-3673.
Maxine Antell and Leo Goldberger examined the effects of sexual and aggressive stimuli on creativity.
Two groups of subjects (creative and noncreative) received three conditions; sexual, aggressive and neutral stimulation.
On the Remote Associates Test, creative and noncreative groups did not differ on a baseline measurement.
Combining the groups gave results which showed that drive activation did facilitate creativity, and that sexual activation was superior to aggressive activation for this purpose.
In a task composing metaphors, drive activation was disruptive to performance.
It was found that aggressive activation was more disruptive than sexual stimulation, and that the noncreative group was more susceptible to such disruption than the creative group.
Arey, L.B. (1960). The indirect representation of sexual stimuli by schizophrenic and normal subject. Journal of Abnormal Social Psychology, 61 (3), pp 424-41.
In this study, it was shown that information presented below the awareness threshold tended to evoke semantically related responses.
The study required normal and schizophrenic males to guess the nature of tachistoscopically exposed sexual and neutral pictures.
While both groups gave symbolic responses to the subliminal stimuli, the normal males reflected positive attitudes and schizophrenics reflected negative attitudes toward sex.
This study showed that subliminal effects have unique characteristics different from effects of supraliminal stimuli.
Ariam, S. (1980). The effects of subliminal symbiotic stimuli in Hebrew on academic performances of Israeli high school students. (Doctoral dissertation, New York University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 40 (11-A), p. 5782.
Sima Ariam found that the use of subliminal symbiotic stimuli improved the academic performance of Israeli high school students.
Ariam, S & Siller, J. (1982). Effects of subliminal oneness stimuli in Hebrew on academic performance of Israeli high school students: further evidence on the adaptation-enhancing effects of symbiotic fantasies in another culture using another language. New York University. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 91 (5), pp 343-349. ISSN: 0021-843X.
Sima Ariam and Jerome Siller observed the effects of subliminal oneness stimuli in Hebrew on the academic performance of Israeli high school students.
This study provides evidence about the therapeutic effects of symbiotic fantasies in another culture using another language.
The subjects were 72 Israeli 10th graders (matched for sex, math class and previous math grades) randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups.
It was decided before the study to eliminate from the data analysis any students who were not from a Hebrew-speaking home, any students who could not be matched with other students on the three variables, and any student who had sporadic attendance during the six-week period of the study due to illness, etc.
Each group was tachistoscopically presented with subliminal exposures to one of four Hebrew translations of printed stimuli; "Mommy and I are one" (2 versions), "My teacher and I are one" and a neutral stimulus, "People are walking in the street."
Each subject received subliminal stimulation four times a week over a six-week period.
Achievement tests administered six weeks apart showed that the groups exposed to either version of "Mommy and I are one" exhibited significantly higher scores than either of the other groups.
There was no difference in the achievement tests administered to the groups exposed to the subliminal stimuli "My teacher and I are one and "People walking in the street".
Neither version of mommy and I are one was superior to the other.
The results support the hypothesis that the adaptation-enhancing effects of the symbolic fantasy represents a general human phenomenon and are consistent with findings of other studies.
Arzumanov Iul & Arzumanov Il (1974). Elaboration of temporary connections in man using unrecognized visual stimuli. Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat., 24 (5), pp 917-923. Language: RUSSIAN.
Athens, A. (1973, December). Beware, here comes the mind manipulators. Family Health, pp 38-42.
Art Athens discusses the use of subliminal technology for reducing retail theft.
Augenbraun, H.R. (1983). The effect of subliminal activation of unconscious fantasies in the treatment of juvenile-onset and adult-onset obesity. Memphis State University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 43 (12-B), p. 4134. ISSN: 0419-4209.
Hedy Augenbraun examined the effect of subliminal activation of unconscious fantasies in the treatment of weight reduction for females with juvenile- and adult- onset obesity.
Aurell, C.G. (1979, October). Perception: A model comprising two modes of consciousness. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 49 (2), pp 431-444.
Averback, E. & Coriell, A.S. (1961). Short term memory in vision. Bell System Technical Journal, 40, pp 309-28.
In this study, it was found subjects may continue to obtain information from a subliminal stimulus for a brief period after the tachistoscopic exposure has ended.
Babighian, G. (1969). Behavior and clinical importance of various subliminal tests in Meniere's disease. Minerva Otorinolaringol, 19 (4), pp 215-217. ISSN: 0026-4938, Language: ITALIAN.
Bagby, P.K. (1985). The effect of symbiotic and Oedipal subliminal stimuli on field independence and competitive tasks. University of Nevada, Reno. Dissertation Abstracts International, 45 (12-B, pt 1), p. 3927. ISSN: 0419-4209.
Patricia Bagby examined the effect of symbiotic and Oedipal subliminal stimuli on field independence and competitive tasks in college students.
Baker, L.E. (1937a). The influence of subliminal stimuli upon verbal behavior. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 20.
Lynn Baker sets out the influence of priming on verbal behavior.
Baker, L.E. (1937b). The pupillary response conditioned to subliminal auditory stimuli. Doctoral Dissertation, Vol W1937, University of Wisconsin, Madison.
Lynn Baker examined the conditioning of the pupillary response by subliminal auditory stimuli.
Balay J. & Shevrin, H. (1988). The psychodynamic activation method, a critical review. American Psychologist, 43 (3), pp 161-174.
Jennifer Balay and Howard Shevrin review the psychodynamic activation method.
Researchers claim that the psychodynamic activation theory has been successfully tested experimentally with the use of specially constructed subliminal stimuli.
In this review, Balay and Shevrin claim that Silverman's work has internally inconsistent results with few attempts at exact replication.
The authors state that Silverman has expanded the applications of the method without carefully establishing the conditions under which results could be reliably obtained.
Balay and Shevrin discuss the weaknesses in the methodology used for the research programs.
There are also theoretical concerns about; (a) the assumption that subliminal generic messages are consistent with the psychoanalytic theory regarding the nature of unconscious conflict, and (b) the assumption that subliminal stimuli can activate unconscious conflict.
Balay, J.S. (1987). The role of aggression in bipolar affective disorder: a subliminal approach. Dissertation Abstracts International, 48 (4-B), p. 1145.
Balota, D.A. (1982). Automatic and attentional activation in semantic and episodic memory: Implications for the utility of conscious awareness. University of South Carolina. Dissertation Abstracts International, 42 (12-B, Pt 1), p. 4952. ISSN: 0419-4209.
In this study, David Balota investigated the influence of a pattern-masked subliminal stimulus on long-term memory and response latency on lexical decisions.
Using the subliminal stimulus it was possible to produce activation in semantic memory. However it was not possible to direct conscious attention in long-term memory.
Baldwin, R.B. (1974). Kinetic art - use of subliminal stimulation of visual perception. Leonardo, 7 (1), pp 1-5.
Bancroft, W.J. (1976). Suggestology and suggestopedia; The theory of the Lozanov method. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 132857).
Jane Bancroft discusses the theory of the Lozanov method.
To be understood properly suggestology and suggestopedia should be considered in relation to yoga, Soviet and western work in suggestion and psychotherapy, the Russian school of physiological psychology and the Soviet concept of the unconscious, Soviet linguistics and pedagogy.
Suggestology investigates the subsensory signals or subliminal stimuli which come from the physical or social environment and which are absorbed into the unconscious mind before receiving a conscious expression. Suggestion, especially spoken suggestion, activates the reserve capacities of the mind or the memory.
Suggestopedia increases memorization capacities. Hypermnesia is facilitated by relaxation techniques (derived from yoga and autogenic therapy) which increase the subject's suggestibility to spoken suggestions or unconscious stimuli.
As lack of scientific data in "Suggestopedia" may lead to a negative reaction to the Lozanov thesis, Bancroft suggests translating the underlying original ideas and reconstructing the statistical evidence in accordance with the more rigorous and less ideologically oriented methods used in western science.
Banretti-Fuchs, K.M. (1967). Perception without awareness. Acta Psychologie, 26 (2), pp 148-160.
This paper examines visual perception with subliminal stimulation.
Barber, P.J. (1977). Experimenter bias against subliminal perception? A rejoinder. University of London, Birkbeck College. British Journal of Psychology, 68 (3), pp 281-82.
Paul Barber replies to criticisms regarding his replication of three subliminal perception experiments.
The argument that the replications were less sensitive to subliminal perception effects than the original experiment is discussed with regards to experimenter bias and instrument sensitivity.
Barber P.J. (1982). Perceptual defence: Attempted replication using the dark adaptation paradigm. A rejoinder. University of London, Birkbeck College, England. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 36 (3) pp 345-348. ISSN: 0008-4255.
Paul Barber discusses criticisms by A.G. Worthington (1964) regarding the replications by the present author and C. de la Mahotiere using the dark-adaptation paradigm for perceptual defense.
Barber's reasons for choosing this paradigm to replicate rather than a later version is explained, as are the reasons for the failure to replicate.
Barber, P.J. & Rushton, J.P. (1975). Experimenter bias and subliminal perception. University of London, Birkbeck College, England. British Journal of Psychology, 66 (3), pp 357-372.
Paul Barber and J. Philippe Rushton addressed the question that subliminal perception may be due, in part, to experimenter bias effects.
Studies by G.J. Smith et al (1959) and D.P. Spence & B. Holland (1962) were therefore replicated with the experimenters tested under blind and not-blind conditions.
Although there were diffuse Experimenter effects, there was not strong evidence to support the experimenter bias hypothesis.
Barchas, P.R. & Perlaki, K.M. (1986). Processing of preconsciously acquired information measured by hemispheric asymmetry and selection accuracy. Behavioral Neuroscience, 100 (3), pp 343-349. ISSN: 0735-7044.
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of instruction types on hemispheric activation and accurate selection of spatial stimuli that had previously been presented at a subliminal level.
The results supported the hypothesis that analytical subjects would be more likely to engage the parietal region of their left hemisphere and holistic subjects would favor relative activation of the right parietal region.
The findings are discussed in terms of a memory model of information processing.
Barenklau, K.E. (1981). Using subliminal in technical training. Training, 18 (12), pp 50-51. ISSN: 0095-5892.
It has been seen through subliminal advertising that people can be taught to respond positively to very brief images. Keith Barenklau explains how this technique may be used effectively in some kinds of technical training.
The human brain processes information in very short periods of time - perhaps 1/1000th of a second. Experience has shown that a high level of detail can be built up in memory, along with highly specific learning responses to images.
A training technique based on minimal perception was first developed at Ohio State University during World War 2. At exposures of 1/100th of a second, U.S. Navy gunners were trained to identify more than 2,000 silhouettes at one sitting without a mistake.
The major equipment involved in the training technique based on minimal perception is the tachistoscope, a device which regulates the duration of the flashed image. A tachistoscope mounted on a slide projector is all that is needed for this kind of instruction.
Short training sessions, of not more than 20 minutes, have proven to be the best. The learning requires intense concentration. The tachistoscope has been successfully used in teaching student drivers to recognize and respond quickly to potential vehicle collision situations.
Bargh, J.A., Bond, R.N., Lombardi, W.J. & Tota, M.E. (1986). The addictive nature of chronic and temporary sources of construct accessibility. New York University. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 50 (5), pp 869-878. ISSN: 0022-3514.
John Bargh, Ronald Bond, Wendy Lombardi and Mary Tota investigated the joint influence of long- and short-term sources of accessibility on impression formation.
Subjects with or without a long-term, chronically accessible construct for either kindness or shyness were first exposed subliminally to either 0 or 80 trait-related words. Subjects then read a behavioral description that was ambiguously relevant to the primed trait dimension, and they rated the target on several trait scales.
For both the kind and the shy trait conditions, chronic accessibility and subliminal priming reliably and independently increased the extremity of the impression ratings.
Results support a model in which long- and short-term sources of accessibility combine additively to increase the likelihood of the construct's use.
The subliminal priming effect appeared to be a general and pervasive phenomenon, insofar as it occurred for both an evaluatively positive and an evaluatively neutral trait dimension, and for subjects without, as well as with, a chronically accessible construct for the primes.
Implications for the nature of construct accessibility and the generality of automatic influences on social perception are discussed.
Barkoczi, I., Sera, L. & Komlosi, A. (1983). Relationships between functional asymmetry of the hemispheres, subliminal perception and some defence mechanisms in various experimental settings. Eotvos Lorand University, Budapest, Hungary. Psychologia: An International Journal of Psychology in the Orient, 26 (1), pp 1-20 ISSN: 0033- 2852.
I. Barkoczi, L. Sera and A. Komlosi studied the relationship between functional asymmetry of the hemispheres, subliminal perception and some defense mechanisms in various experimental settings.
The subjects participated in 2 experiments with different lateral eye-movement situation in order to examine the role of the 2 hemispheres in the processing of emotional stimuli. In the interval between their participation in the 2 experiments, the subjects were administered the Repression-Sensitization Scale and the Defense Mechanism Inventory.
The 2 experiments involved recognition of aversively preconditioned stimuli in a divided field and P.H. Bakan's (1971) lateral eye-movement questioning method.
The results indicate that several indices obtained in the experimental situations (i.e., lateral eye movement, verbal reaction time, GSR, EEG) showed the right hemisphere to be superior in the preprocessing of emotionally loaded stimuli. The extent of this superiority, however, depended on degree of hemisphericity.
The findings support the formation of different defense mechanisms on the basis of learning. An interpretation of subception and defense mechanisms is presented.
Barratt, P.E.H. & Beh, H.C. (1964), Subliminal perception of the concept of vigilance. Australian Journal of Psychology, pp 107-119.
Barratt, P.E.H. & Herd, J.H. (1964). Subliminal conditioning of the alpha rhythm. Australian Journal of Psychology, 16, pp 9-19.
Battersby, W.S. & Defabaugh, G.L., (1969). Neural limitations of visual excitibility: after-effects of subliminal stimulation. Vision Research, 9 (7), pp 757-768. ISSN: 0042-6989.
This paper examines the after-effects of subliminal stimulation on visual perception.
Bauer, W.D. (1986). The effects of conditional and unconditional subliminal stimuli on intrinsic motivation. University of Rochester. Dissertation Abstracts International, 46 (8-B), pp 2794-2795. ISSN: 0419-4209.
This study attempts to rule out the Self Perception accounts of findings in the intrinsic motivation literature. Behavioral and affective indices of intrinsic motivation were demonstrated to be effected outside of awareness. The Subliminal Psychodynamic Activation Method was used to present the experimental intervention outside of awareness.
Four groups of subjects were used, each receiving one of four messages: "Mommy and I are one"; "Mommy and I are one when I'm good"; "Mommy and I are one all the time" and the control "People are walking on the path".
Of particular interest were the negative emotions (ie. fear, shame and anxiety) reported in the "Mommy and I are one" group.
The results are discussed in terms of the implications for developmental origins of styles of self regulation as well as the importance of subject and dosage factors in responses to subliminally presented merging stimuli in the treatment control.
Baumeister, A. & Kistler, D. (1975). Facilitation of retention by white noise. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 20, pp 13-31.
Bayuk, M. & Bayuk, B.S. (1980). Suggestology and suggestopedia: A selective bibliography of western sources. ERID ED 192556 FL011596.
Milla Bayuk and Barry Bayuk compiled a bibliography with more than 200 titles, including addendum with 22 titles lists: 1) sources dealing with psychological and physiological research on the brain and it's function in learning, and 2) works treating subliminal suggestion and perception, and 3) papers on the influence of music on learning and behavior.
Becker, H.C. (1976) Subliminal communication and hypnosis. Presentation to the American Society of Clinical Hypnosis, 25th Annual Scientific Meeting. October 24-30. Denver.
Becker, H.C., Chamberlain, S.B., Heisse, J.W. Jr. & Marino, D.R. (1982). Subliminal communication and hypnosis. Paper presented at the Conference of the American Society of Clinical Hypnosis. Denver, October.
In this paper evidence is presented that shows how subliminal communication offers a broad spectrum of approaches for "human resource potentiation."
As subliminal stimuli appear to reach directly to the primitive and unconscious levels of the mind, this suggests a wide range of therapeutic, educational and industrial applications.
Supermarkets in the New Orleans area reported dramatic results using a "little black box" that delivers messages over a store's music below the threshold of normal hearing.
A typical black-box message repeats, "I am honest; I will not steal. If I steal, I'll get caught." According to Becker, the message "activates psychostatic unconscious wishes and desires" in the potential thief and creates a conflict between a conscious drive to steal and the unconscious, innate aversion to theft.
Becker, H.C. & Charbonnet, K.D. (1980). Applications of subliminal video and audio stimuli in therapeutic, educational, industrial and commercial settings. Eighth Annual Northeast Bioengineering Conference, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, March 28, 1980.
Becker, H.C., Charbonnet, K.D., Warren III, E.S., Corrigan. R.E., Schmidt III, L.F., Griffin, Jr., C.E., Penick III, R.M. & Ryder III, F.B. (1980). New subliminal processors for therapy, industry, education. 33rd Annual Conference of Engineering in Medicine and Biology (ACEMB), Washington, D.C., September 30-October 3.
Becker, H.C., Corrigan, R.E., Elder, S.T., Tallant, J.D. & Goldstein, M. (1965, August 22-27). Subliminal communication: Biological engineering considerations. Digest of the 6th International Conference of Medical Electronics and Biological Engineering, pp 452-453. Tokyo.
Becker, H.C. & Elder, S.T. (1966). Can subliminal perception be useful to the psychiatrist? Excerpta Medica (International Congress, Series No. 117). Abstract of paper presented to the IV World Congress of Psychiatry, Madrid, Spain, September 5-11.
Becker, H.C. & Glanzer, H.H. (1978). Subliminal communication: Advances in audiovisual engineering applications for behavior therapy and education. Proceedings of the 1978 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Region 3 Conference. Atlanta, April 10-12.
Becker, H.C., Jewell, J.F. & Alito, P. (1977, March 13017). Video and audio signal monitors/processors for subliminal communication in weight control. Proceedings of the 12th Annual Meeting of the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI), San Francisco.
Becker, H.C. & McDonagh. E.W. (1978). Subliminal communication (subliminal psychodynamic activation) in rehabilitative and preventive medicine. Proceedings of the 1978 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Region 3 Conference. Atlanta, April 10-12.
Beisgen, R.T., Jr. & Gibby, R.G., Jr. (1969). Autonomic and verbal discrimination of a subliminally learned task. Virginia Commonwealth University. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 29 (2), pp 503-507. ISSN: 0031-5125.
Robert Beisgen, Jr. and Robert Gibby, Jr. examines subliminal perception by employing classical conditioning techniques at a subliminal level.
The subjects were presented with ten nonsense syllable at a subliminal level, five of which were paired with an electric shock.
Subjects were then administered four tests for discrimination.
It was found that the subception effect described in prior studies can be empirically verified and that classical conditioning can take place at a level below conscious awareness.
Bell, P.D. (1986). The interspersal technique of Milton Erickson: Testing an operational definition. Fielding Institute. Dissertation Abstracts International, 46 (10-B), pp 3586-3587. ISSN: 0419-4209.
In this study, Paul Bell tested the hypothesis that an embedded message in a taped story would impact subjects differently than the same story without an embedded message.
Hostile messages were embedded within a fairy tale, and the volume level of the hostile/aggressive words was systematically lowered or raised in the context of a the story.
Skin conductance, semantic differential scores, and a content analysis were used to measure subject's responses to the embedded hostile message.
The hypothesized hostile message had no measurable effect on the subjects.
The operational definition of the interspersal technique was shown to be inadequate.
Recommendations were made for specific and systematic research into embedded auditory messages and the interspersal technique of Dr. Milton Erickson.
Bellack. A.S. & Williamson, D.A. (1982). Obesity and anorexia nervosa in D.M. Doleys, R.L. Meredith and A.R. Ciminero (Eds). Behavioral medicine: Assessment and treatment strategies. New York, Plenum.
Bellach and Williamson reported a positive correlation between subliminal suggestion and weight control.
Beloff, J. (1973). The subliminal and the extrasensory. University of Edinburgh, Scotland. Parapsychology Review, 4 (3), pp 23-27.
John Beloff compares ESP and subliminal perception.
ESP differs from subliminal perception in that ESP requires no sensory contact.
He states that the two are similar in the way they decode, process, and then shift information from unconscious to conscious awareness.
It is concluded that ESP may be regarded as a compromise between the mind omniscient and awareness filtered of everything not pertaining to biological needs.
Bender, B.G. (1973). Spatial interactions between the red- and green-sensitive color mechanisms of the human visual system. Imperial College, Applied Optics Section, London, England. Visual Research, 13 (12), pp 2205-2218.
The effects of subliminal annuli on the increment threshold of a central test spot, and the supraliminal annuli on the flicker threshold of a central test were used to psychophysically study spatial interactions in the visual system.
Previous evidence indicates that subliminal interactions occur at a level before the optic chiasma, while supraliminal interactions occur more centrally. Interactions were therefore tested at two levels in the visual system.
The visual stimuli were selected to stimulate individual spectral classes of color mechanisms, particularly interactions between red- and green-sensitive channels of foveal vision.
For both types of measurement interactions between center and surround regions of receptive fields occurred only between like spectral response mechanisms, whereas interactions within the center of receptive fields also occurred between the spectral mechanisms.
Ben-Hur, A. (1979). The relationship of systematic desensitization and the activation of symbiotic merging fantasy to speech anxiety reduction among college students.New York University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 40 (5-B), pp 2351-2352.
Amos Ben-Hur compares the relationship of systematic desensitization and the activation of symbiotic merging fantasy to speech anxiety reduction.
Benson, H. (1979). The mind/body effect. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Herbert Benson shows that man has the power to influence the sympathetic nervous system, which is generally considered involuntary.
Berlin, P.D. (1984, March). An evaluation: Can subliminal messages be used to control shrinkage? Peter Berlin Report. (Price Waterhouse Newsletter), pp 5-6.
Peter Berlin argues in favor of using subliminal messages to control shrinkage.
It has been found that by playing inaudible messages shoplifting and employee theft is deterred.
Bernstein, B.R. (1986). The effects of subliminal symbiotic and oedipal stimuli on weight loss in obese women. New York University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 46, (8-B), 2795. ISSN: 0419-4209.
Bonnie Bernstein examined the effects of subliminal symbiotic and oedipal stimuli on weight loss in obese women.
Bernstein, J.H. & Eriksen, C.W. (1965). Effects of "subliminal" prompting on paired-associate learning. Journal of Experimental Research in Personality, 1, pp 33-38.
Berry, D.M. (1985). Effects of educative/support groups and subliminal psychodynamic activation on bulimia in college women. University of California, Davis. Dissertation Abstracts International, 45 (11-B), p. 3612. ISSN: 0419-4209.
Diana Berry examined the effects of group therapy and subliminal psychodynamic activation on bulimia.
Bevan, W. (1964a). Subliminal stimulation: a pervasive problem for psychology. Psychological Bulletin, 61 (2), pp 84-92.
Bevan, W. (1964b). Contemporary problems in adaption level theory. Psychological Bulletin, 61 (3), pp 161-187.
Bevan, W. & Pritchard, J.F. (1963). Effect of "subliminal" tones upon the judgment of loudness. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 66.
Bianki, V.L. & Kurochkin, V.A. (1976). Callosal influences on the focus of maximum activity in the visual cortex during subliminal stimulation. Biol. Nauki., (7), pp 76-81. ISSN: DA3B-0000, Language: RUSSIAN.
Bianki & Kurochkin examined the effect of subliminal stimulation on the influence of the Corpus Callosum on the focus of maximum activity in the visual cortex.
Black, R.W. & Bevan, W. (1960). The effect of subliminal shock upon the judged intensity of weak shock. American Journal of Psychology, 73.
Blakkan, R. (1982). Fear and loving in regulation land: Liquor marketers learn to live within the rules and like it/what some of the fuss is about. Advertising Age, 53 (34), pp M-22-23, M-26. ISSN: 0001-8899.
Renee Blakkan discusses the liquor business in the USA.
Due to the fear of even more government regulations and maybe even the return to the pre-prohibition abuses, the liquor market is amongst the most tightly controlled and self-restricted industries in the U.S.
Among the areas under discussion for changes in the federal laws regulating the advertising and marketing of alcohol is the use of subliminal advertising.
Block, M.P. & Vanden Bergh, B.G. (1985). Can you sell subliminal messages to consumers? Michigan State University. Journal of Advertising, 14 (3), pp 59-62. ISSN: 0091-3367.
Martin Block and Bruce Vanden Bergh conducted a telephone survey of 330 adults to determine consumer attitudes toward the use of subliminal stimulation techniques in a self-improvement product.
Consumers responses reflected a concern about being influenced to do something they did not want to do.
The study also found that although consumers believed subliminal advertising could affect behavior, they were also skeptical toward the use of subliminal messages for the purpose of self-improvement.
The study found that those consumers most favorable toward the subliminal technique had prior experience with computers and video equipment and appeared to be less educated, younger, and more often unmarried than those subjects less favorable toward the subliminal technique.
Those found to be most aware and concerned about the use of subliminal advertising were found to be white, well-educated and affluent, whereas those more favorable to the use of subliminal techniques for self-improvement were found to be less educated and to be experiencing some family problems.
Blum, G.S. (1975) Reply to Jennings and George. University of California, Santa Barbara. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 41 (3), pp 957-958.
Gerald Blum criticizes L.B. Jennings and S.G. George's attempted replication of his study on perceptual vigilance ad defense.
He stresses that, (a) the replication was not satisfactory because of shortcomings in method, including use of a different set of stimuli and that, (b) Jennings and George missed the theoretical point that a subjects report is the result of a perceptual-cognitive sequence of events.
Boardman, W. K. & Gladstone S. (1962). Effects of subliminal anchors upon judgments of size. Perceptual Motor Skills, 14.
Bonnet, E.B. (1974). The utilization of audio tapes in hypnosis. Journal of the American Institute of Hypnosis. 15 (2), pp 82-87, 92.
Eldon Bonnet discusses the use of audio tapes in hypnoanalysis.
Three areas of utilization are discussed: (a) aid in self-improvement, (b) use during times of sleep, and (c) general updating of current literature for the practitioner.
Bonnet argues that there is no such thing as "sleep learning," as the term is commonly used. He therefore discusses and recommends audio tape "twilight state" imprinting programs.
Borgeat, F. (1983). Psychophysiological effects of two different relaxation procedures: Progressive relaxation and subliminal relaxation. Louis-H, Lafontaine Hospital, Psychiatric Research Center, Montreal, Canada. Psychiatric Journal of the University of Ottawa, 8 (4), pp 181-185. ISSN: 0702-8466.
Francois Borgeat compared the physiological effects of progressive relaxation and subliminal relaxation. The experimental technique involved the audition of soft music subliminal suggestions of relaxation.
The subjects participated in a four week training with these two methods in two laboratory testing sessions (one for each method).
During the training frontal EMG, heart rate, skin conductance levels, and responses were recorded. These psychological data were submitted to multivariate and univariate ANCOVAs.
The was no significant difference between the physiological effects of the two techniques.
Progressive relaxation was more effective in the reduction of EMG levels of the more anxious subjects (on the IPAT Anxiety Scale Questionnaire).
The general lack of difference between the physiological states induced by two methods different in their procedure and in the subjective effects is interpreted in the light of the hypothesis of a common and natural "relaxation response" that can be facilitated by a large variety of techniques.
Borgeat, F., Chabot, R. & Chaloult, L. (1981). Subliminal perception and level of activation. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 26 (4), pp 255-259. ISSN: 0008-9824. Language: FRENCH.
Francois Borgeat, Ronald Chabot and Louis Chaloult reported positive results in clinical work with smokers, alcoholics and obese patients.
Two noteworthy studies were conducted using double blind experiments. It was found that the auditory subliminal messages influenced the level of activation on their subjects.
One study of auditory subliminal messages directed the person to act or not to act. Activation changes were estimated through a variation in Mood Adjective Check List scores.
Four of six factors on the adjective checklist were statistically significant. All six factors showed response. Two-thirds were statistically significant at the .05 level of confidence.
In the second experiment three forms of auditory subliminal stimulation were used; an emotional message, a neutral message and a pure tone.
In this study, it was found that the emotional message produced significantly different results from the other two. In other words the subliminal message, whose language is that of emotion, triggered subjective states and processed the message.
In both these experiments, the semantic content inducted responses in subjects who remained consciously unaware of it.
It was concluded that the parameters regulating subliminal response and susceptibility remain largely undefined and in need of systematic investigation.
Borgeat, F. & Chaloult, L. (1985). A relaxation experiment using radio broadcasts. University of Montreal, Louis-H. Lafontaine Hospital, Canada. Canada's Mental Health, 33 (1), pp 11-13. ISSN: 0008-2791.
Francois Borgeat and Louis Chaloult describe a primary prevention activity in which a radio station broadcasted music in which subliminal relaxation messages had been mixed.
Also discussed are topics related to health, stress, and relaxation therapy.
A survey of 100 listeners showed that a majority had some previous experience with relaxation therapy and that most used the recordings to decrease tension and improve sleep.
The importance of communicating to the public appropriate knowledge and techniques in the area of self-care is discussed.
Borgeat, F., Chaloult, L. & Chabot, R. (1981). Subliminal perception: neurophysiological models and aspects of research in Quebec. Union Medical Canada, 110 (1), pp 19-22. ISSN: 0041-6959, Language: FRENCH.
Borgeat, F., Elie, R., Chaloult, L. & Chabot, R. (1985). Psychophysiological responses to masked auditory stimuli. Louis-H. Lafontaine Hospital, Psychiatric Research Center, Montreal, Canada. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 30 (1), pp 22-27. ISSN: 0706-7437.
The purpose of the study was to compare effects of masked auditory verbal stimuli (words masked by a dominant-sounding white noise) presented at increasing intensities on the physiological responses of 20 21-30 year old healthy women.
Subjects were presented with sexual-emotional words (rape, whore, penis) and neutral words (veil, skate, tennis) in two weekly experimental sessions.
In each two-hour session, two stimuli content were used (neutral and sexual-emotional) as well as two different sets of instructions - attendance and nonattendance to the stimuli.
The hypothesis tested was that physiological responses can be influenced by the meaning of subliminal auditory stimuli.
Verbal stimuli, masked by a 40 db white noise, were presented to the subjects at increasing intensities by increments of 5 db starting at 0 db.
At each increment physiological effects (frontal EMG, heart rate, skin conductance, and muscular activity) were measured.
In this way psychophysiological responses to stimuli below the thresholds of identification and detection were observed.
With the subjects not paying attention to the sound, the physiological effects of aggressive subliminal words were weaker than with neutral subliminal words.
This suggests that the women were protected from responding to potentially disturbing stimulus of which they were not aware.
When concentrating on the sound, this protective mechanism was less evident.
Borgeat, F. & Goulet, J. (1983) Psychophysiological changes following auditory subliminal suggestions for activation and deactivation. Louis-H. Lafontaine Hospital, Psychiatric Research Center, Montreal, Canada. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 56 (3), pp 759-766. ISSN: 0031-5125.
Francois Borgeat and Jean Goulet exposed 18 normal 21- to 41-year-old subjects alternately to a control situation and to 25-db activating and deactivating suggestions masked by a 40-db white noise.
Physiological measures (EMG, heart rate, skin-conductance levels and responses, and skin temperature) were recorded while subjects listened passively to the suggestions, during a stressing task that followed, and after that task.
The MANOVA showed a significant effect of the activation subliminal suggestions during and following the stressing task. This result suggests effects of consciously, unrecognized perceptions on psychophysiological responses.
Borgeat and Goulet reported positive results in clinical work with smokers, alcoholics and obese patients.
Borgeat, F. & Pannetier, M.F. (1982). Interest of cumulative electrodermal responses in subliminal auditory perception: preliminary study. Louis H. Lafontaine Hospital, Center de Recherche Psychiatrique, Montreal, Canada. Encephale, 8 (4), pp 487-499. ISSN: 0013-7006, Language: FRENCH.
Borgeat & Pannetier examined the usefulness of averaging electrodermal responses for research on subliminal auditory perception.
Eighteen female subjects were exposed to three kinds (emotional, neutral and 1000 Hz tone) of auditory stimulation, which were repeated six times at three intensities (detection threshold, 10 dB under this threshold and 10 dB above identification threshold).
Analysis of electrodermal potential responses showed that the number of responses was related to the emotionality of subliminal stimuli presented at detection threshold but not at 10 dB under it.
The data interpretation proposed refers to perceptual defence theory.
This study indicates that electrodermal response count constitutes a useful measure for subliminal auditory perception research, but averaging those responses was not shown to bring additional information.
Bornstein, R.F. (1987). Subliminal mere exposure effects and conscious cognition: a study of attitude changes in response to stimuli perceived without awareness. Dissertation Abstracts International, 47 (9-B), p. 3941.
Bornstein, R.F., Leone, D.R. & Galley, D.J. (1987). The generalizability of subliminal mere exposure effects: influence of stimuli perceived without awareness on social behavior. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 53 (6), pp 1070-1079.
Bornstein, R. F. & Masling, J.M. (1984). Subliminal psychodynamic stimulation: Implications for psychoanalytic theory and therapy. State University of New York, Buffalo. International Forum for Psychoanalysis, 1 (2), pp 187-204. ISSN: 0738-8217.
Robert Bornstein and Joseph Masling discuss the work of L.H. Silverman et al.
Topics discussed are; 1) the idea that a subliminal stimulus can affect the psychopathology of patients in analysis, 2) the difference between laboratory research and practical application in psychoanalysis, 3) the experimental manipulations of the work by Silverman, et al. 4) the assertion by Silverman at al, that the perception of the message takes place at an unconscious level, and 5) the oneness fantasies with respect to schizophrenics.
Borysenko, J. & Borysekno, M. (1983). On psychoneuroimmunology: How the mind influences health and disease...and how to make the influence beneficial. Executive Health, 19. p 10.
Bouchard, S.J. (1984). Effects of a self-administered subliminal-relaxation treatment on anxiety. United States International University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 45 (6-B), p. 1906. ISSN: 0419-4209.
Susan Bouchard studied the effects of combining subliminal and relaxation training principles on anxiety via subliminal suggestions to relax.
The subjects were randomly assigned to one of four conditions: 1) subliminal-relaxation treatment, 2) subliminal symbiotic activation treatment, 3) relaxation training treatment, or 4) neutral musical stimulus control condition.
The subjects listened daily to one of four recordings for 1 day. Pre- and post-treatment scores on the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale (TMAS) were obtained. Subjects also rated their moods daily on Likert-type scale.
It was hypothesized that 1) significant between group differences would be found, and 2) subliminal-relaxation treatment would be associated with significantly greater reductions than the other conditions.
The four groups did not differ significantly demographically or in levels of pre-treatment anxiety.
The study's hypotheses were not supported.
There was no significant between-group differences were observed in anxiety reduction.
The average reduction of the subliminal-relaxation treatment group was no significantly greater.
All four groups reduced anxiety significantly during the 10 days.
Bovier, P., Broekkamp, C.L. & Lloyd, K.G. (1982). Enhancing GABAergic transmission reverses the aversive state in rats induced by electrical stimulation of the periaqueductal grey region. Clinique Psychiatrique Bel-Air, Geneva, Switzerland. Brain Research, 248 (2), pp 313-320. ISSN: 0006-8993.
Phillipe Bovier, Chris Broekkamp and Kenneth Lloyd found that, when GAB agonist progabide and diazepam where given together in subliminal doses to Charles River Rats, the combination exerted a marked auto-aversive effect.
Bower, B. (1987). Subliminal messages: changes for the better? Science News, 129 (13), pp 156-158.
Bruce Bower's article discusses the work of Lloyd Silverman, and in particular, Silverman's use of a tachistoscope to project subliminal words.
The "Mommy and I are one" message, as used by Thomas Budzynski, is also discussed.
Bowersox, R.E. (1981). The theory of subliminal perception: How it relates to subliminal stimulation in advertising. Unpublished report, Clarion University of Pennsylvania.
Brandeis, D. & Lehmann, D. (1986). Event-related potentials of the brain and cognitive processes: Approaches and applications. Special issue: Methods in neuropsychology, University Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland. Neuropsychologia, 24 (1), pp 151-168. ISSN: 0028-3932.
Brandeis and Lehmann argue that early event-related potential (ERP) components are valuable in clinical testing of the afferent sensory systems in the absence of anamnestic or clinical pathology.
Examples of spatial analysis show that; 1) different ERP field configurations follow the presentation of noun and verb meaning of homophone words, 2) that the ERP effects to subjective contours resemble those of attention in time course and topography, 3) that the cognitive P300 component reflects the specific stimulus location, and 4) that subliminal information influences the configuration of the late ERP fields.
Brennan, S.N. (1984). The effect of subliminal separation-individuation schemas on moral reasoning and mood in depressed and non-depressed women. New York University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 45 (6-b), p. 1907. ISSN: 0419-4209.
Sharon Brennan examines the effect of subliminal separation-individuation conflicts on the moral reasoning and the depressive moods of female college students.
Brice, L., Taylor, E., Lionberger, W.J. & Morris, W.P. (1986). What you should know about subliminal perception and subliminal self-improvement tapes. Gateways Research Institute, Inc.
This booklet contains a review of literature and information to encourage use of subliminal self-help tapes.
Areas covered include; 1) what you should know about subliminal perception, 2) scientific evidence that show how subliminal messages influence behavior, 3) how you can use subliminal perception for self-improvement, 4) how Gateways make their tapes, 5) who uses subliminal tapes, and 6) questions and answers regarding the use of subliminal tapes.
Bromfield, R.N. (1986). Subliminal psychodynamic activation: Demonstration, oedipal factors and personality correlates. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. Dissertation Abstracts International, 46 (11-B), p. 4005. ISSN 0419-4209.
Richard Bromfield examined the effects of the subliminal tachistoscope stimulation of unconscious oedipal wishes & personality traits on the dart throwing performance of male college students.
Bronstein, A.A. (1977). An experimental study of internalization fantasies on schizophrenic men. Yeshiva University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 37 (9-B), p. 4665.
Bronstein, A.A. & Rodin, G.C. (1983). An experimental study of internalization fantasies in schizophrenic men. Children's Hospital Medical Center, San Francisco, CA. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research & Practice, 20 (4), pp 408-416. ISSN: 0478-7013.
Abbot Bronstein and Gail Rodin explored the types of internalization fantasies involving the constructs (or concepts or fantasies) of mother that are ameliorative in schizophrenia.
Four groups of 30 subjects each received a subliminal experimental stimulus designed to activate a different fantasy of internalization as well as a subliminal neutral control message.
The experimental messages were; 1) "Mommy and I are one", 2) "Mommy and I are the same", 3) "Mommy is inside me", and 4) "Mommy and I are alike".
The control message was "People are walking."
The assessments of pathological thinking and behavior were made before and after the presentation of each stimulus.
"Mommy and I are one" was the only stimulus to be found effective in reducing pathology.
The results lend strong support to earlier findings that fantasies of oneness identification with the "good" mother are ameliorative for schizophrenics.
Brooks, J. (1985). The little ad that isn't there: a look at subliminal advertising. Consumer Reports, 23, pp 7-10.
In this article Brooks describes experiments by James Vicary where words were flashed on a movie screen at speeds too fast to register consciously. These words were perceived and acted upon by the subconscious mind.
In a six-week test of the technique (1957), viewers at a New Jersey movie theater were subjected to "Eat popcorn" and "Drink Coca-Cola" messages flashed on the screen every five seconds for about 1/1000 of a second whilst watching Kim Novak in the film Picnic
Intermission sales of Coca-Cola and popcorn increased by 18 percent and 58 percent respectively.
However not everyone in the theater bought these products.
Follow-up surveys showed that people who did not ordinarily eat popcorn or drink cola were not influenced to do so.
Brosgole, L. & Contino, A.F. (1973). Intrusion of subthreshold learning upon later performance. Psychological Reports, 32 (3, part 1), pp 795-798.
Leonard Brosgole and Angelo Contino conducted two experiments to determine the frequency with which subliminal learning intrudes on subsequent performance.
The responses from the serial learning experiments were analyzed to specify the types of intrusion.
It was found that materials from the past interfered with performance.
They found that subthreshold (not subliminal) learning may intrude on and interfere with task performance.
Brush, J. (1982). Subliminal stimulation in asthma: Imaginal, associative and physiological effects. Boston University Graduate School. Dissertation Abstracts International, 43 (4-B), pp 1294-1295. ISSN 0419-4209.
Twenty asthmatic and twenty non-asthmatic subjects viewed tachistoscopic presentations, at speeds to rapid for conscious awareness, of pictures and words representing oral aggression, abandonment, mutual helpfulness, symbiotic merging, or neutral human relationships.
Following each presentation, recordings were made of subjects' ten-minute free association. The subjects also drew pictures of two people, completed a Profile of Mood State Scale and had their pulmonary airway conductance measured.
Predictions regarding specific hypotheses were not supported by significant results.
Post-hoc analyses revealed that asthmatics responded more positively than non-asthmatics to stimuli implying unity of mother and child.
Bryant-Tuckett, R.M, (1981). The effects of subliminal merging stimuli on the academic performance of emotionally handicapped students. New York University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 41 (12-B Pt. 1), p. 4654. ISSN: 0419-4209.
Rose Bryant-Tuckett examined the effects of subliminal symbiotic gratification stimulation on the academic performance of emotionally disturbed adolescents.
Bryant-Tuckett, R. & Silverman, L.H. (1984). Effects of the subliminal stimulation of symbiotic fantasies on the academic performance of emotionally handicapped students. Free School District, Lakeside-Ramapo Union, Spring Valley NY. Journal of Counseling Psychology 31 (3), pp 295-305. ISSN: 0022-0167.
Rose-Marie Bryant-Tuckett and Lloyd Silverman studied the effects of the subliminal stimulation of symbiotic fantasies on the academic performance of emotionally disturbed adolescents.
The subjects were divided into experimental and control groups matched for age, IQ, and reading ability. Each group was further divided to receive only words or words with a picture.
Both groups were seen five times a week for six weeks for tachistoscopic exposures of subliminal stimulus.
The experimental group received the stimulus "Mommy and I are one" without a picture and with a picture of a woman pleasantly gazing at an infant cradled in her arms.
The control group was exposed to the neutral stimulus "People are walking" without a picture and with a picture of two bland-looking men.
The experimental group showed greater academic achievement and adaptive functioning. Academic achievement was measured by improvement on a California Achievement Reading Test. They showed improved adaptive functioning in five of six secondary variables - arithmetic achievement, self-concept, handing in homework assignments, independent classroom functioning, and self-imposed limits on television viewing.
It was suggested that activation of unconscious symbiotic fantasies can increase the effectiveness of counseling and teaching.
Budzynski, T. (1977). Tuning in on the twilight zone. Psychology Today. 11 (3), pp 38-44.
Thomas Budzynski discusses the use of subliminal messages in his clinical practice.
Part of his work involves conducting stress reduction seminars using subliminal messages as well as conventional techniques.
Budzinski has observed that subliminal messages "speed up the recovery process."
By using positive subliminal affirmations, his clients gain self-esteem and assertiveness.
Burkham, R. (1982). The effect of subliminal presentation of two gratifying fantasies on female depressives. St. Louis University Dissertation Abstracts International 42, (10-B), 4183. ISSN: 0419-4209.
Robert Burkham replicated Nissenfield's study (1979) and extended it. Nissenfield had reported that procedures intended to elicit unconscious gratifying symbiotic fantasies reduced depressive symptoms among depressed female psychiatric patients.
This study examined the impact of presumed gratifying rapprochement fantasies in reducing depressive symptoms.
Subjects were subliminally presented with a neutral control stimulus, a symbiotic stimulus and a rapprochement stimulus.
The effect of presenting these three stimuli was measured by change scores on seven dependent variables which measured self-reported and experimenter-rated cognitions and effects, self-esteem, psychomotor retardation, as facets of depression, and Silverman's measure of pathological non-verbal behavior.
The subjects manifested no differential response to the stimuli whatsoever. The failure to replicate Nissenfield's results was attributed largely to Nissenfield's unjustifiable data analysis strategy. The possibility of an experimenter effect which either enables or hinders subliminal psychodynamic activation was also considered.
Byrne, D. (1959). The effect of subliminal food stimulus on verbal responses, Journal of Applied Psychology, 43 (4), pp 249-252.
In this article Byrne discusses earlier studies on the effects of subliminal stimuli.
It is shown that there is a "greater than chance accuracy in the discrimination of visual, auditory and olfactory stimuli".
The discrimination occurs regardless of whether the stimuli are "rendered subliminal by distance...low intensity of the stimuli...low intensity of surrounding illumination...or lack of attention".
Byrne,. W. (1979), Let's try harder - and smarter - to solve the problems posed by low achievers Training, 16 (9), p. 122. ISSN: 0095-5892.
William L. Byrne discusses the effects low achievers have on corporations and employees.
Amongst the possible solutions posed for dealing with poor management, is the use of subliminal messages geared to reinforcing good management concepts.
Caracciolo, D., Shirsat, N., Wong, G.G., Lange, B., Clark, S. & Rovera, G. (1987). Recombinant human macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M_CSF) requires subliminal concentrations of granulocytes/macrophage (GM)-CSF for optimal stimulation of human macrophage colony formation in vitro. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 166 (6), pp 1851-1860.
Carr, T. & Bacharach, V. (1976). Perceptual tuning and conscious attention. Cognition, 4 (3), pp 281-302.
Carroll, R.T. (1980). Neurophysiological and psychological mediators of response to subliminal perception: The influence of hemisphericity and defensive style on susceptibility to subliminally presented conflict-laden stimuli. St. John's University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 41 (1-B), pp 342-343.
Richard Carroll examined the individual response, or sensitivity, to subliminal stimulation.
Previous studies have indicated that the individual differences could be explained, at least in part, by differences in either hemisphericity or defensive style.
Four groups of subjects were selected on the basis of extremity in hemisphericity and defensive styles. Each subject was exposed, tachistoscopically to oedipal conflict arousing and conflict alleviating messages, a control message and three neutral messages which served as a "buffer" or baseline stimuli.
The subjects's dart-throwing accuracy was used as a measure of response, or sensitivity, to the conflict-related and control stimuli.
The results revealed an interaction between hemisphericity and defensive style. This indicates that the group with right hemisphericity with externalizing defensive style and group with left hemisphericity with internalizing defensive styles displayed subliminal sensitivity.
The groups with right hemisphericity with internalizing defensive styles and the left hemisphericity with externalizing defensive styles did not display subliminal sensitivity.
The results also indicate that, overall, the conflict arousing message led to significantly lower dart-throwing scores than did the conflict-alleviating message.
Carstens, C.B. (1983). Retrospective discounting and augmenting in an overjustification procedure. University of North Carolina, Greensboro. Dissertation Abstract International, 44 (3-B). ISSN: 0419-4209.
Carter, R. (1986, January/February). Whispering soft nothings to the shop thief: How "reinforcement messaging" works. Retail and Distribution Management, 14 (1), pp 36, 39. ISSN: 0307-2363.
Roy Carter explains how the use of subliminal messages can stop theft.
A new method for curbing retail theft is being tested. This technique, called reinforcement messaging (RM), involves the use of a computer-controlled public address facility to broadcasts messages such as "Be honest - Don't steal" over the store's loudspeaker system at the threshold of conscious hearing. The customers are therefore being influenced without being aware of it.
Due to the likelihood of this project prompting debate, the promoters have taken measures to dispel talk of mind control. It is being emphasized that only approved messages would be used, broadcasting would be at an audible level, and posters would be posted carrying the same message.
Studies in the United States indicate that the system works.
Subliminal Assistance, Ltd., the company that markets RM, claims the method can reduce shop theft by 30 percent.
Castricone, L.E. (1987). Effects of subliminal symbiotic activation on empathy as measured by conceptual level of object representation, cognitive decentering and drive content. Dissertation Abstracts International, 48 (4-B), 1141.
Chaloult, L., Borgeat, F. & Chabot, R. (1980). Subliminal perception. 1. Its nature and the controversy engendered. Union Medical Canada, 109 (12), pp 1694-1700. ISSN: 0041-6959. Language: FRENCH.
This article examines subliminal perception with regards to sensory thresholds, perception, subliminal stimulation, photic stimulation and also the public opinion surrounding this issue.
Charman, D.K. (1979), An examination of the relationship between subliminal perception, visual information processing, levels of processing and hemispheric asymmetries. Perceptual and Motor Skills 49 (2), pp 451-455. ISSN: 0031-5125.
David Charman studied the relationship between subliminal perception, visual information processing, levels of processing and hemispheric asymmetries.
A subliminal letter was exposed to the left right brain hemispheres for either 15 or 30 msec.
Subjective guesses were more accurate for visuospatial positional recognition made to presentation in the right hemisphere whereas verbal recognition was more accurate to presentation in the left hemisphere.
The 30 msec. exposure increased the accuracy of the guesses.
The findings suggest that subliminal information is processed differentially by the hemispheres with respect to positional or verbal content.
The left hemisphere processes subliminal verbal information better than the right; the right hemisphere processes subliminal visuospatial-positional information better than the left.
These findings were discussed in terms of differential triggering mechanisms for levels of hemispheric processing.
Charman's findings reinforce evidence about the nature of hemispheric information processing (Davis & Schmit, 1973; Dimond, 1972 and Searleman, 1977)., as well as adding to this evidence on the grounds that the hemispheres appear to be differentially adapted/sensitive for specialized tasks, i.e. the subliminal information triggered their respective asymmetries beyond that of subjective awareness.
Charman's findings also reinforce Dixon's (1971) argument that subliminal perception operates as a function of exposure and intensity of the present information.
Cheesman, J.E. (1987). Distinguishing conscious from unconscious perceptual processes. Dissertation Abstracts International, 47 (10-B), 4335.
Cheesman, J. & Merikle, P.M. (1984). Priming with and without awareness, University of Waterloo, Canada. Perception and Psychophysics, 36 (4), pp 387-395. ISSN: 0031-5117.
Jim Cheesman and Philip Merikle conducted two experiments to examine whether meaning could be perceived without awareness in a color-naming task.
The color was immediately preceded by the presentation of a congruent color word, incongruent color word, or control letter string.
No evidence for perception without awareness was found when the threshold for detecting color-word primes was measured reliably by a forced-choice procedure, and no priming occurred when the words were presented at the detection threshold.
However, systematic increases in the level of detection for the primes led to correlated increases in the magnitude of priming.
The results provided no support for claims that priming is a more sensitive indicator of perceptual processing than detection based upon verbal report.
Cherry, E.F. (1977). On success avoidance in women: a comparative study of psychoanalytic theories. Adelphi University.
Chew, R. (1977, March 21). Three second spots - Too slow for 1992. Advertising Age, 48 (12), pp 1 & 87. ISSN: 0001-8899.
Robert Chew predicted that by 1992, television commercials would be short, fast bursts of symbols and flashes verging on subliminal communication.
Chimera, J.E. (1987). An exploration of the effect of auditory subliminal stimuli on schizophrenic pathology. Dissertation Abstracts International, 47 (10-B), p. 4335.
Chinen, A.B., Spielvogel, A.M. & Farrell, D. (1985). The experience of intuition. University of California, San Francisco. Psychological Perspectives, 16 (2), pp 186-197. ISSN: 0033-2925.
Allan Chinen, Anna Spielvogel & Dennis Farrell interviewed a group of senior training analysts from Freud and Jung Institutes and senior-level business executives in major corporations about the experience of intuition.
The findings suggest that intuition is a large family of experiences where subtle similarities alone revealed the blood tie.
Intuitions occurred in a distinctive media (verbal thoughts, mental images, physical sensations).
Intuitive experiences were related to subliminal cognition, merging experiences, and synchronistic events.
Women reported more intuitions than did men and this study outlines the resistances.
Intuition appeared to become deeper with age.
The data suggests that the process of intuition involves attunement, articulation and interpretation.
The process of intuition parallels the creative process and depends on the process of symbolization.
Citrin, M.D. (1980, May). The effects of subliminal oedipal stimulation on competitive performance in college males and females. New York University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 40 (11-B), pp 5399-5400.
Molly Citrin examined the effects of subliminal visual oedipal stimulation on the competitive performance of male versus female college students.
Claire, J.B. (1981). A holographic model of psychosomatic pattern: Freud's specimen dream re-interpreted. Institute of Epidemiology and Behavioral Medicine, San Francisco, CA. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 36 (2), pp 132-142. ISSN: 0033-3190.
Jill Claire discusses the specimen dream that Freud used to elaborate his theories and that contained a representation of his cancer, which manifested 28 years later.
The dream suggests an image of how a disease may become symbolically linked to a psychological complex through subliminal physiological changes occurring as a result of behaviors attributed to the complex.
The dream appears to operate like a holograph, exhibiting the seeds of past trauma while simultaneously predicting the future.
Clark, M.M. (1987) Effects of social support and subliminal stimulation on anxiety reduction. Dissertation Abstracts International, 48 (1-B), p. 258.
Cohen, R.O. (1977). The effects of four subliminally-introduced merging stimuli on the psychopathology of schizophrenic women. Dissertation Abstracts International, 38 (5-B), pp 2356-2357.
Roni Cohen examined the effects of four subliminally introduced merging stimuli on the psychopathology of schizophrenic women.
Two groups were examined in three sessions.
Group one received the experimental stimuli "Mommy and I are one" and "My guy and I are one".
Group two received "Daddy and I are one" and "Girlfriend and I are one".
Half of each group received the messages with verbal plus picture presentation, and half with a verbal-only presentation.
Each session ended with the Adjective Rating Scale, and the last session included collection of demographic data and administration of the Embedded Figures Test.
The results lend support to the hypotheses that, under certain conditions, 1) merging stimuli reduce pathology in female schizophrenics, 2) merging with significant objects, other than the mother, reduces pathology in female schizophrenics under certain conditions, and 3) the sex of the merging stimulus may be male or female for pathology reduction.
The results do not support the hypothesis under all conditions, nor do they support that merging stimulus of the female parent reduces pathology in female subjects. Also, there was no significant difference in pathology reducing effectiveness between stimuli of male and female objects in general.
Condon, T.J. & Allen, G.J. (1980). Rise of psychoanalytic merging fantasies in systematic desensitization: A rigorous methodological examination. Guidance Center for Family & Youth, Danbury, CT. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 89 (3), pp 437-443. ISSN: 0021-843X.
In this study, Thomas Condon and George Allen present a methodologically rigorous replication and extension of the investigation by Silverman, L.H. et al, which shows that the success of systematic desensitization resides partially in its activation of unconscious merging fantasies.
The results obtained, however, pose serious questions as to the internal, external and statistical conclusion validity of Silverman's studies.
Bug-phobic women participated in 4 therapy sessions.
The desensitization technique employed was different to the norm in that subliminal verbal stimuli were substituted for muscle relaxation.
The three stimuli used should have;
(a) decreased fear and behavioral avoidance,
(b) increased anxiety, or
(c) had no effect on fear of insects.
Subjects in all conditions showed significant improvement on behavioral approach, self-reported distress, and behaviorally rated anxiety.
No differential treatment outcomes were found.
Analyses ruled out such alternative explanations as therapist specificity or instrumentation deficiencies.
Conner, L.A. (1984). Subliminal messages - Part 1 Keeping watch, Series 2, Issue 5. Glen Mills. PA
Conner, L.A. (1984) Subliminal messages - Part 2, Keeping watch. Series 2, Issue 6. Glen Mills, PA.
Conner, L. (1986 in W.J. Donovan, Enter a quiet voice against shoplifting).
Lawrence Conner, Director of Shoplifters Anonymous, states that, due to the increasing problem of shoplifting, retailers feel that psychological deterrence is the most economical way to go.
Conner, L.A. Jr. & Conner, L.A. III. (1985). The Midwest Research report on subliminal messages in retail stores, Glen Mills, Pennsylvania: Shoplifters Anonymous.
Larry Conner states that the use of subliminal messages as a deterrent to shoplifters has a greater impact on occasional and habitual shoplifters.
Conte, M. & Gennaro, A. (1983). Unconscious perceptions, subliminal perceptions and subliminal psychodynamic activation: paths and methodologies. Giornale Storico di Psicologia Dinamica, 7 (13), pp 134-158.
Cook, H. (1985). Effects of subliminal symbiotic gratification and the magic of believing on achievement. Columbia University Teachers College. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 2 (4), pp 365-371. ISSN: 0736-9735.
Harold Cook examined the effect of a subliminally presented symbiotic gratification and a magic of believing message on academic achievement.
The subjects were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 experimental message conditions or a control message condition and received on the average 12 sessions, 10 exposures per session, of 4-msec visual subliminal presentation of 1 of the 3 messages.
The experimental group's messages were either "Mommy and I are one," or "I understand statistics (or measurement)."
The control group's message was "People are walking."
Each session occurred immediately prior to a lecture in either statistics or a measurement class. Each of the courses was taught in a traditional manner by the regular faculty, who were naive regarding the experimental conditions.
The final examinations for each course revealed statistically significant differences in favor of the symbiotic gratification experimental condition over the control condition.
No differences were obtained between the symbiotic and magic of believing conditions.
Cooper, C. & Kline, P. (1986). An evaluation of the Defence Mechanism Test. University of Ulster, Coleraine, Northern Ireland. British Journal of Psychology, 77 (1), pp 19-32. ISSN: 0007-1269.
Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the Defence Mechanism Test (DMT).
Experiment 1 used neutral and threatening secondary figures.
The results showed that subliminal threat is a necessary element of the DMT.
In Experiment II, subjects completed the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF), Group Embedded Figures Test, and DMT.
Although the correlations between the DMT scales and established personality variables were generally small, they were as hypothesized from Freudian theory.
The lack of correspondence, however, between the Repression scale of the DMT and a measure of perceptual defense questions the validity of this scale of the test.
DMT scores were little affected by individual differences in scanning speed when the influence of anxiety was controlled
Cooper, L.M. & Hoskovec, J. (1972). Hypnotic suggestion for learning during stage 1 REM sleep. Brigham Young University. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 15 (2), pp 102-111.
This study shows that learning during sleep is possible, but the procedures used in this experiment were not appropriate for practical application.
Coren, S., Porac, C. & Ward, L.M. (1978). Sensation and Perception. Academic Press: New York.
The question addressed by Coran, Porac and Ward is, "do audio messages have to be above audio threshold in order to make a difference in one's thinking?"
The argument put forward is that, in the signal detection theory, a subject will alter his response to different levels of possible stimuli.
It is known that when the subject believes that a signal rarely occurs, then they will respond to the faintest sensation.
However, if it is known that the signal occurs rarely, the subject would be tempted to wait to respond until the sensation is stronger.
Using this argument, it should therefore be possible to alter response patterns by altering subjects' expectations.
Corrigan, R.E. & Becker, H.C. (1956). Research Report. Rome Air Development Command, Griffiss Air Force Base, Rome, NY.
Corrigan and Hal Becker provide evidence that a) new and useful information can be subliminally communicated to the unconscious, and b) this information can be used, at a later time, at the conscious level in a problem solving situation.
Corrigan, R.E. & Becker, H.C. (Oct. 30, 1962). Apparatus for producing visual stimulation. United States Patent Office, 3,060,795.
Robert E. Corrigan and Hal C. Becker filed a patent for apparatus which produces visual stimulation at levels of awareness below that ability of an observer to report the stimulus verbally.
The apparatus is to be used to impart useful information to the observer by subconscious stimulation, resulting subsequently in conscious purposive behavior of said observer without his awareness of the basis for such behavior.
Costley, D.L. & Moore, F.A. (1986). The subliminal impact and hidden agendas of training. New Mexico State University, Las Cruces. Personnel Journal, 65 (3), pp 101-102 and p. 105.
Dan Costley and Fay Moore suggest that trainers should be upfront about the use of subliminals for training purposes.
The concern is the possible effects of the subliminals after the training is over.
Crawford, B.H. & Palmer, D.A. (1985). The scotopic visibility curve and cone intrusion. Institute of Ophthalmology, Department of Visual Science, London, England. Vision Research, 25 (6), pp 863-866. ISSN: 0042-6989.
In this study the scotopic visibility curves of 2 observers was measured by determining their absolute thresholds for monochromatic lights.
It is postulated, however, that the threshold results in the long-wave part of the spectrum could be considerably modified by subliminal red and green lights. This is consistent with B. Drum's (1982) observations of subadditivity at threshold.
Crawford, M.A. (1985). Subliminal messaging - A 50s technology enjoys a rebirth. Security Management, 29 (8), pp 54-56. ISSN: 0145-9406.
Mary Crawford reported on the use of subliminal communication as a method to reduce retail theft.
There is controversy over whether subliminal communication is effective for the purpose of reducing shop theft, and there are also complaints about it intruding on personal privacy.
She indicated that, at present, no laws govern the use of subliminal communication although there have been proposals for regulating it.
Despite the controversy over its effectiveness, the use of subliminal communication is growing.
One company claims 20 to 40 percent reduction in losses.
Cummins, R.A. (1985). Subliminal perception. A discussion with special relevance to the uses of subliminal audio tapes. Bulletin of the Australian Psychological Society, pp 28-35.
Robert Cummins discusses research on subliminal communication, with particular emphasis on the faults in methodology.
An argument put forward is that of Timothy E. Moore, where it is believed that some of the results obtained from scientific research were actually due to effects of weak (but not subliminal) stimulation.
The article erroneously states that the practice of using subliminal messages was outlawed in the United States.
Cummins produces contradictions in his arguments against subliminal communication with his belief that such "mind control" techniques should be banned, whilst still maintaining that they do not work.
Cummins believes that any results obtained from using subliminal audio tapes are purely placebo effects.
Cuperfain, R. & Clarke, T.K. (1985). A new perspective of subliminal perception. Journal of Advertising, 14 (1), pp 36-41. ISSN: 0091-3367.
The problem with previous research regarding the effects subliminal stimulation has on buying behavior, may be due to the researchers focusing on the wrong areas of subliminal perception or making unreasonable demands on subliminal perception.
Research has suggested that right brain processing may be more efficient than left brain processing. Also, subliminal stimulation may affect most people through right brain information processing.
This means that multiple exposures of graphic representations of products presented to the left field of vision will generate effective subliminal perception.
Ronnie Cuperfain and Keith Clarke tested this model of subliminal stimulation in a laboratory study.
Subjects viewed a film concerning woolen-clothing soaps that did or did not have a subliminal messages (5 tachistoscopic presentation to the left visual field of a picture of 1 of 2 products).
Each subliminal presentation lasted for 1/60th of 1 second.
The subjects then completed a questionnaire that asked them to rank-order the 5 soaps.
The results indicate that the subliminal messages did have an impact on stated preference for the highly advertised, widely available product, but not for the relatively unknown product.
The test also suggests that regular programming presents a greater potential for misuse of subliminal stimulation than commercial breaks.
Czyzewska-Pacewicz, M. (1984). The priming phenomenon in semantic memory evoked by sub-threshold stimuli. Polish Academy of Sciences, Psychology Institute, Warsaw. Przeglad Psychologiczny, 27 (3), pp 617-629. ISSN: 1148-5675, Language: POLISH.
In this study Maria Czyzewska-Pacewicz examined semantic priming produced by unconsciously transformed stimuli.
It is assumed that the semantic analysis of information received beyond the control of awareness probably plays a considerable role in more functionally complex cognitive processes.
Stimuli were presented below the threshold of cognition and remained in various semantic relations with materials consciously seen and transformed by the subjects.
A clear effect of priming was revealed by the shortening of the impulse transformation when it was preceded by a semantically linked stimulus exposed beyond the control of awareness.
Dauber, R.B. (1984). Subliminal psychodynamic activation in depression: On the role of autonomy issues in depressed college women. Dutton Counseling Center, Morristown, NJ. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 93 (1), pp 9-18. ISSN: 0021-843X.
Richard Dauber used the subliminal psychodynamic activation method in 2 experiments to study the effects of messages related to autonomy on 36 depressed (Beck Depression Inventory Score >=10) female undergraduates.
Subjects were administered the Depressive Adjective Check List (DACL) and the TAT to assess depression during the experiments.
In Experiment I, exposure to the stimulus "Leaving mom is wrong" increased depression but the stimulus "Mommy and I are one" did not reduce depression.
In Experiment II, the stimulus "Leaving mom is wrong" intensified depression, particularly for those subjects who scored high on the DACL for introjective depression, a depression that is understood as guilt-related.
The findings suggest that psychodynamic effects can be demonstrated with depressive patients if care is taken both to select a relevant psychodynamic content and to select depressive subjects for whom there is reason to believe this content is particularly relevant.
Davis, P. & Silver M.J. (1971). Ellipse discrimination: A psychophysical task useful for studying incidental stimulation. Medfield Foundation, Mass. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 32 (1), pp 95-97. ISSN: 0031-5125.
An ellipse discrimination test, with 4 distinct levels of difficulty, was developed. This test provided a wide range of alternative responses rather than a binary choice.
The subject's task was to judge in which of 6 o'clock orientations the minor axis of the ellipse was oriented.
Although this procedure was evolved as propaedeutic to studying the effects of incidental, "subliminal," unbeknown stimulation on such a discrimination, it should prove useful in other contexts whenever a difficult ellipse discrimination is required.
Dean, D. & Nash, C.B. (1967). Coincident Plethysmograph results under controlled conditions. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 44 (731), pp 1-14.
This study reports on a subject who gave plethysmographic responses which coincided with stimulations given to an agent in an adjoining room, suggestive of mental telepathy. Other similar experiments are also reported.
An experiment was carried out, the results of which indicate that mental operations coincide with subjects' plethysmograph responses.
Extrasensory stimulation of the subjects physiological response by an agent showed that the results can be due to chance coincidence, to errors due to bias and that this can be inference by subliminal sensory communication.
The evidence obtained by plethysmographs can be used to measure PSI effects if emotionally-laden stimuli are used and if inhibitory emotional reactions are absent.
DeChenne, J.A. (1976). An experimental study to determine if a task involving psychomotor and problem solving skills can be taught subliminally. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 37 (4-A), p. 1947.
The purpose of this study, conducted by James DeChenne, was to determine if a task involving psychomotor and problem solving skills could be taught subliminally at three educational levels.
A video taped motion picture was shown, the content of which was totally unrelated to the task being taught.
Based on the results of the study, the following generalizations were inferred: 1. Under the experimental conditions of this study, students at the educational levels tested, were not able to be taught a task subliminally, which involved psychomotor and problem solving skills. 2. As the subjects were exposed to the subliminal stimuli for a total of one half os a second, this could explain the limited influence of the subliminal stimulation.
De Fleur, M.L. & Petranoff, R.M. (1959). Television test of subliminal persuasion, Indiana University, Bloomington. Public Opinion Quarterly, 23 (2), p. 168.
Melvin De Fleur and Robert Petranoff examined the effect of subliminal television broadcasts.
De Martino, C.R. (1969). The effects of subliminal stimulation as a function of stimulus content, drive arousal and priming and defense against drive. New York University. Dissertation Abstracts, 29 (12-B), p. 4843.
Claude Robert de Martino undertook this study in order to demonstrate: 1) that the subliminality of a stimulus is more crucial than it's content in determining the subliminal effect; 2) that subliminal effects can be produced without prior manipulation of drive states; 3) that priming enhances the effects of neutral but not of drive related subliminal stimuli; 4) that the effects of the latter are inhibited by drive arousal; 5) that the effects of drive-related subliminal stimuli are constricted by defensive and enhanced by non-defensiveness.
The effects of a neutral subliminal stimulus, the word "tell", and an aggressive subliminal stimulus, the word "kill", were investigated under neutral drive and priming. The effects of the aggressive stimulus were also investigated under drive arousal.
A comparison of the mean pre and post scores on the Adjective Check Mood List showed that insulting the subjects made them feel more hostile and anxious. Priming, however, had no effect on the subjects' feelings.
Both the discrimination and detection procedures indicated that the "kill" and "tell" stimuli were subliminal.
Recognition was a more sensitive response measure than recall.
With recognition as the response measure, a subliminal effect was found for both the aggressive and the neutral subliminal stimuli under neutral drive conditions. The magnitude of this effect was significantly greater under priming conditions.
Priming enhanced the effects of neutral subliminal stimuli, but inhibited the effects of the aggressive subliminal stimulus.
The effects of the aggressive subliminal stimulus were carried by subjects who described themselves as aggressive on the Buss-Durkee Inventory, whereas the subjects who described themselves as not aggressive showed a negative or no effect. This trend was reversed with a neutral subliminal stimulus.
Deviatkina, T.A., Tarasenko, L.M., Bbyreva, L.E., Sergienko, N.G. & Voskresenskii, O.N. (1985). Lipid peroxidation in tissues during subliminal electrostimulation of limbic system structures in the brain. Biull. Eksp. Biol. Med., 100 (10), pp 412-414.
Dillingham, S. (1987, September 14). Inaudible messages making a noise. Insight, pp 44-45.
Susan Dillingham reports on the success of subliminal self-help tape sales.
Dixon, N.F. (1956). Symbolic associations following subliminal stimulation. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 37.
Dixon, N.F. (1958a). Apparent changes in the visual threshold as a function of subliminal stimulation. A preliminary report. Quarterly Journal Of Experimental Psychology, 10, pp 211-219.
Dixon, N.F. (1958b). The effect of subliminal stimulation upon autonomic and verbal behavior. Journal Of Abnormal Social Psychology, 57.
Dixon, N.F.(1964). Communication without awareness: Implications of subliminal perception. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 8.
Dixon, N.F. (1968). "Perception without awareness": A reply to K.W. Banreti-Fuchs. University of Adelaide, Australia. Acta Psychology, Amsterdam, 28 (2), pp 171-180. ISSN: 0001-6918.
A study by Banreti-Fuchs to determine the verbal responses on subliminal stimuli, support the view that it is very easy to prevent weak stimuli having an effect upon behavior. As such they do not constitute a fair test of the original hypothesis.
Some of the factors involved in the controversy surrounding subliminals, are discussed.
Dixon, N.F. (1971). Subliminal Perception: The Nature of a Controversy, London: McGraw-Hill.
Dixon, N.F. (1979). Subliminal perception and parapsychology: Points of contact. University of London, University College, England. Parapsychology Review, 10 (3), pp 1-6. ISSN: 0031-1804.
Norman Dixon argues that parapsychological phenomena and subliminal perception may depend on the same underlying process.
Dixon, N.F. (1981a). The conscious/unconscious interface: Contributions to an understanding. University of London, University College, England. Lund University: Psychological Research Bulletin, 21 (5). ISSN: 0348-3673.
Norman Dixon states that there is hardly a single finding from subliminal perception, microgenesis and sleep and dream research, that does not implicate a 2-way interaction between sensory inflow, emotional appraisal, and the unconscious memory storage systems of the human brain.
A flow model is presented to explain how physiological events in the brain give rise to representations in the mind.
Dixon, N.F. (1981b). Preconscious Processing, New York: Wiley.
Norman Dixon discusses preconscious processing.
He states that the unconscious mind integrates the meaning of new words with related data in memory without conscious awareness or effort.
Dixon, N.F. (1981c). Psychosomatic disorder: a special case of subliminal perception? In Psychosomatic Approaches to Medicine, 1, Behavioral Science Foundations, Eds. M.J. Christy & P.G. Mellett, London: Wiley.
Dixon, N.F. (1983). The conscious-unconscious interface: Contributions to an understanding. University of London, University College, England. Archiv fur Psychologie, 135 (1), pp 55-66. ISSN: 0066-6475.
Norman Dixon states that there is hardly a single finding from subliminal perception, microgenesis, and sleep and dream research that does not implicate a 2-way interactions between sensory inflow, emotional appraisal, and the unconscious memory storage systems of the human brain.
A flow model is developed to explain how physiological events in the brain give rise to representations in the mind.
The model depicts conditions for achieving conscious representations of sensory inflow, which include physical, physiological and mental factors.
Regardless of the mechanism through which the transition from physiological to phenomenal representation is achieved, the transition is potentially sensitive to these three physical, physiological and mental factors.
The model also encompasses; 1) consciousness and energy, 2) temporal parameters of consciousness, 3) the ubiquity of subliminal effects across receptors, 4) sensory dimensions, and 5) modalities.
Dixon, N.F., Henley, S.H. & Weir, C.G. (1984). Extraction of information from continuously masked successive stimuli: An exploratory study. University of London, University College, England. Current Psychological Research & Review, 3 (1), pp 38-44. ISSN: 0737-8262.
Norman Dixon, Sue Henley and C.G. Weir reported on five studies in which the amount and type of information recoverable from rapidly changing and continuously masked letter strings, was examined.
The effect of responding to continuously masked stimuli of subjects' instructional sets using a computer-controlled paradigm were also examined.
It was found that it was possible for most subjects, with effort, to concentrate responses in some time periods after the target.
It was suggested that, although not consciously recognizable, masked words do not behave like totally subliminal verbal stimuli.
Dixon, N.F. (1985a). Apparent changes in the visual threshold as a function of subliminal stimulation. A preliminary report. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 10, pp 211-219.
Dixon, N.F. (1985b). The effect of subliminal stimulation upon autonomic and verbal behavior. Journal of Abnormal Social Psychology, 57.
Dodge, R. (1907). An improved exposure apparatus. Psychology Bulletin, 4, pp 10-13.
Dodge describes his design for a tachistoscope for use in psychology laboratories.
Doerries, L.E. & Harcum, E.R. (1967). Long-term traces of tachistoscopic word perception. Perceptual Motor Skills (United States), 25 (1), pp 25-30. ISSN: 0031-5125.
Doerries and Harcum examined the effects of visual subliminal word presentation on serial learning and verbal learning, and the long term memory traces.
Donovan, P. (1985). Selling right and left. Sales and Marketing Management, 134 (8), pp 63-65. ISSN: 0163-7517.
Priscilla Donovan examines the concept of brain hemisphere dominance and determines how it can be applied to selling.
An understanding of the difference between customers with a left-brain and those with a right-brain thinking style can help a sales person do a better, more profitable job.
According to human brain research, left-dominant people are good at mathematics, talking on their feet and organizing, while right-brained people can "read' other people intuitively, like variety and can estimate distance and space correctly.
These differences can be used by the salesperson to predict how a client will respond to certain products and sales strategies.
When dealing with left-brained customers, salespeople should be prompt, concise and exact, with right-brained customers, they should adopt a friendlier, more circumspect approach.
Because the left is favored in American culture, the right exerts a powerful subliminal force on everyone.
Donovan, W.J. (1986, February 18). Enter a quiet voice against shoplifting. Providence Journal Rhode Island.
William Donovan describes how more and more retailers are turning to subliminal messages to combat shoplifting.
Although there were concerns about mind control, the public is now beginning to understand that the point is to reinforce a person's natural actions.
The point stressed is that subliminal messages cannot be used to get people to buy products.
The subliminal messages are used to add weight to people's consciences regarding right and wrong.
Subliminal messaging, like hypnosis, only works when it enhances the individuals feelings.
It is estimated that more than 300 of the million or so retailers use subaudio messages. However due to the concern about the possibility of negative public opinion, they refuse to disclose such use.
Duncan, J. (1985). Two techniques for investigating perception without awareness. MRC Applied Psychology Unit, Cambridge, England, Perception and Psychophysics, 38 (3), pp 296-298. ISSN: 0031-5117.
Dunham, W.R. (1894). The Science of Vital Force, Boston: Damrell and Upham.
Dunham discusses supraliminal and subliminal consciousness.
Supraliminal consciousness is seen as ordinary intelligence, which is above the horizon and within the limit of recognition.
Subliminal consciousness is seen as an obscure function of the mind and intellectual ability.
Dutto, F.N. & Galli, N. (1982). The effects of noxious subliminal suggestions upon smoking attitudes and behavior. ERIC, ED 217359 (EDRS).
Franklin Dutto and Nicholas Galli studied the effects of noxious subliminal suggestions upon smoking attitudes and behavior.
Subliminal stimuli used were slides of a cigarette package with a skull and crossbones and the word "POISON".
Adult smokers, were shown anti-smoking films.
The experimental groups' film contained six splices of the subliminal stimuli.
The experimental group exhibited no change in smoking behavior or attitudes.
This study supports the ideas that affirmations need to be positive to be effective.
Eagle, M. (1959). The effects of subliminal stimuli of aggressive content upon conscious cognition. Journal of Personality, 27, pp 578-600.
Eagle, M. (1962). Personality correlates of sensitivity to subliminal stimulation. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 134 (1).
Efran, J.S. & Marcia, J.E. (1967). Treatment of fears by expectancy manipulation: An exploratory investigation. Proceedings of the 75th annual convention of the American Psychological Association, 2, pp 239-240.
Efran and Marcia devised a treatment for snake and spider phobics.
This treatment is similar to systematic desensitization except that it does not use the pairing of relaxation and anxiety hierarchy images.
The treatment consisted of looking into a blank tachistoscope. Occasional shocks were administered and the subjects were told that this was an automatic reactions to the "subliminal" phobic stimuli which were being extinguished.
The test was administered to two groups of subjects under high and low expectancy conditions.
The results indicated that this treatment had it's greatest effect under high-expectancy conditions.
Ellis, H.D. (1972). Adaptation-level theory and context effects on sensory judgments: perception for response? Perception, 1 (1), pp 101-109. ISSN: 0301-0066.
Emmelkamp, P.M. & Straatman, H. (1976). A psychoanalytic reinterpretation of the effectiveness of systematic desensitization: Fact or fiction? Behavior Research & Therapy, 14 (3), pp 245-249.
The aim of this study was to replicate and extend the work of L.H. Silverman.
Silverman stated that the effectiveness of systematic desensitization (SD) resides in its activation of unconscious merging fantasies.
In Silverman's experiments, a procedure aimed at stimulating a fantasy of "merging with mother" was substituted for muscle relaxation.
The subjects underwent tachistoscopic subliminal exposure of the symbiotic gratification stimulus "Mommy and I are one" (experimental) or the neutral stimulus "people are walking" (control).
Emmelkamp and Straatman replicated this study with special reference to demand characteristics.
Snake-phobic subjects were used.
It was found that the systematic desensitization with a symbiotic gratification stimulus was not more effective than systematic desensitization with a neutral stimulus.
This may be explained by the fact that the neutral stimulus in the present study "snake and I are one" was more relevant than the neutral stimulus in the Silverman et al study.
In addition, it was found that the subjects with a therapy-set improved significantly more than subjects with a research-set.
Emrich, H. & Heineman, L.G. (1966). EEG in subliminal perception of emotionally important words. Psychology Forsch, 29 (4), pp 285-296. ISSN: 0033-3026, Language: GERMAN.
Emrich and Heineman used an EEG as measurement of the effects of the subliminal presentation of emotionally important words.
Erdelyi, M.H. (1972). Role of fantasy in the Poetzl (emergence) phenomenon. Douglass College, Rutgers State University. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 24 (2), pp 186-190.
Matthew Erdelyi compared the relative effectiveness of doodles and pictorial guesses in recovering initially unreported elements of a brief stimulus.
Subjects were randomly assigned to fantasy, guessing or yoked groups.
The fantasy and guessing subjects saw a brief (500 msec.) composite stimulus which they then attempted to recall.
The fantasy subjects subsequently generated 20 unrepeating pictorial fantasies, while the guessing subjects produced 20 "shrewd guesses" of the unrecalled stimulus elements.
The yoked group never saw the stimulus, instead each subject saw and copied the free recall drawings of a fantasy subject and then generated 20 guesses of the unrecalled elements.
The guessing subjects recovered significantly more stimulus items in their 20 responses than the fantasy subjects, while the yoked subjects responses were significantly less accurate than their fantasy counterparts. Fantasy in the confirmed Poetzl phenomenon was interpreted as functioning much like subcriterion responses emitted in forced-recall guessing.
Erdelyi, M.H. (1974). A new look at the new look: Perceptual defense and vigilance. Psychological Review, 81 (1), pp 1-25.
Erdelyi, M.H. (1985). Psychoanalysis: Freud's Cognitive Psychology. W.H. Freeman and Company. New York.
In this book, Erdelyi discusses experiments in which subjects recalled the contents of subliminally induced messages through free association and daydreams.
Erikson, C.W. (1958). Unconscious processes. In M.R. Jones (Ed.) Nebraska Symposia on Motivation. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, NE.
Erikson, C.W. & Johnson, H.J. (1964). Storage and decay characteristics of nonattended auditory stimuli. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 68 (1), pp 28-36.
Faenze, V. (1966) Conditions of equivocity of the response in relation to the problem of "subliminal" perception. Archivio Di Psicologia, Neurologia E Psichiatria, 27 (4-5), pp 443-445. ISSN: 0004-0150, Language: ITALIAN.
Under masking noise, subliminal language perception may be influenced by uncontrolled fluctuations.
Farne, M. (1965) Degree of discernability of the stimulus and perceptive behavior. Archivio Di Psicologia, Neurologia E Psichiatria, 26 (6), pp 566-567. ISSN: 0004-0150, Language: ITALIAN
Farne examined the degree of discernability of subliminal stimuli.
Feldman, J.B. (1979). The utilization of the subliminal psychodynamic activation method in the further examination of conscious and unconscious measures of death anxiety. Dissertation Abstracts International, 39 (11-B), pp 5547-5548.
A method to experimentally induce death anxiety was devised to test the validity of four indirect measures of unconscious death anxiety.
The technique chosen was a variation of the subliminal psychodynamic activation method as devised by Silverman (Silverman, 1976).
Using a series of three pictorial and verbal stimuli, individuals could detect a flash of light, but could neither discern content or discriminate between a death related and neutral series of stimuli at 3 msec. duration of exposure.
Further studies using 3 msec. and 4 msec. duration indicated that the subliminal stimulation was effective in inducing death anxiety.
In this study, subjects received four series of three subliminal stimuli prior to the word-recognition, word-association and association-recall tasks.
Subjects also completed a death anxiety questionnaire.
This study supported the findings of this author's previous study in terms of subjects' differential responsivity to death, neutral and sex-related words on a word-recognition, word-association and association recall task.
Field, G.A. (1974). The unconscious organization. University of Windsor, Canada. Psychoanalytic Review, 61 (3), pp 333-354.
George Field discusses how, within an organization, there is an unconscious, where ideas and feelings unacceptable to the organizational superego or ego are actively repressed below the level of the organizational preconscious.
The organizational unconscious exerts a subliminal influence on organizational policies and actions.
Firestone, R.W. (1986). The "inner voice" and suicide. Psychotherapy, 23 (3), pp 439-447. ISSN: 0033-3204.
Although there is a lack of clear behavioral indications of potential suicide victims, there is clinical evidence that the majority of these people are tortured by a subliminal voice or thought process.
This subliminal voice is degrading and derisive to the self and normally accompanies feelings of depression and lowered self-esteem.
Under certain conditions, this system of hostile thoughts becomes progressively ascendant until it finally takes precedence over thought processes of rational self-interest.
Firestone suggests that, by using laboratory procedures, these thoughts can be formulated and brought directly into consciousness when they are put in terms of a "voice."
The dynamics and probable sources of the voice are analyzed and the relationship between this destructive thought process and actual suicidal behavior are explored.
Fisher, C. (1954). Dreams and perception. Journal of the American Psychoanalysis Association, 2, pp 389-445.
Fisher, C. (1956). Dreams, images and perception: A study of unconscious-preconscious relationships. Journal Of The American Psychoanalytical Association, 4, pp 5-48.
Fisher, C. (1960). Subliminal and supraliminal influence on dreams. American Journal Of Psychiatry, 116.
Fisher, S. (1975). Effects of messages reported to be out of awareness upon the body boundary. State University New York, Upstate Medical Center, Syracuse. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 161 (2), pp 90-99.
In a series of eight studies, it was found that out-of-awareness taped messages produced boundary decrement, as measured by the Barrier score (derived from the Holtzman Inkblot Test) in men.
The messages included hostility, depression, body, vulnerability and reassurance themes.
All themes, when properly primed, resulted in boundary decline in men.
Nonprimed and control conditions did not effect the boundary.
In contrast, no significant boundary changes were produced by the primed out-of-awareness themes in women.
It is proposed that men are more disturbed than women by feelings that material has gained entrance to them in a fashion which they cannot control.
Fisher, S. (1976). Conditions affecting boundary response to messages out of awareness. State University of New York, Upstate Medical Center, Syracuse. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 162 (5), pp 313-322. ISSN: 0022-3018.
Seymour Fisher examined multiple studies which evaluated the role of various following parameters in mediating the effects of auditory subliminal inputs upon the body boundary.
The following questions were asked; 1) What is the effect of the subliminal stimulus upon the boundary if the individual is made aware that he is exposed to a subliminal input? 2) How specific must the priming process preceding a subliminal input be in order to potentiate its boundary effects? 3) How is the subliminal registration process altered by introducing a competing stimulus input? 4) Can the apparent stability of the woman's boundary in relation to subliminal input be decreased by introducing an input theme that might be considered particularly threatening to a woman? 5) What is the effect upon response to subliminal input of greatly increasing the amount of exposure to the input? 6) Can individual differences in response to subliminal input be predicted in terms of two variables; a) degree of tolerance for unrealistic experiences, and b) degree of masculinity-femininity?
In a series of six studies, a test-retest design was typically employed that involved measuring the baseline Barrier score with the Holtzman blots and then ascertaining the Barrier change when responding to a second series of Holtzman blots at the same tome that subliminal input was occurring.
Complex results emerged that defined in considerably new detail what facilitates and blocks the boundary-disrupting effects of subliminal messages in men and to a lesser degree in women.
It was found that; a) an individual's awareness that he is being exposed to subliminal input does not effect the degree of boundary impact of that input, b) subliminal input can be modified by the context in which it is presented, c) subliminal effects depend upon the conditions of the subliminal input, d) the increased duration of subliminal input produced an increase in boundary effect in females, e) the increased duration of subliminal input produced a decrease in boundary effect in males, f) priming does not need to be obviously and directly related to the subliminal message in order to potentiate it.
These findings show that subtle perceptual inputs that do not register in awareness may have a boundary impact.
Fisher, C. (1988). Further observations on the Poetzl phenomenon: the effects of subliminal visual stimulation on dreams, images and hallucinations. Psychoanalysis & Contemporary Thought, 2 (1), pp 3-56.
Fisher, C.B., Glewick, D.S. & Blumenthal, R.S. (1986). Subliminal oedipal stimuli and competitive performance: An investigation of between-groups effects and mediating subject variables. Fordham University Bronx. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 95 (3), pp 292-294. ISSN: 0021-843X.
Celia Fisher, David Glenwick and Rena Blumenthal assessed the effects of subliminal presentation of oedipal messages on the competitive performance of college males.
An additional investigation employing a between-groups design, in which Subjects received repeated presentations of 1 of 3 messages, was conducted.
The subjects completed the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory.
The results indicated significant differences between performance following both oedipally related stimuli and the control stimulus for the replication groups.
There was no significant stimulus effects observed in the between-groups investigation, and no significant correlations between anxiety and dart-throwing performance were obtained.
Fisher, C. & Paul, I.H. (1959). The effects of subliminal visual stimulation on imagery and dreams. A validation study. Journal Of American Psychoanalytical Association, 7.
Fisher and Paul show that subliminal messages actually register within the unconscious without the subject being aware of it.
It was found that the recovery of subliminal stimuli in subsequent imagery is maximized by making the subject adopt a supine position in the dark.
Fiss, H. (1966a). Physiognomic effects of subliminal stimulation. Perceptual and Motor skills, 22, pp 265-366. New York University.
Fiss, H. (1966b). The effects of experimentally induced changes in alertness on response to subliminal stimulation. Journal of Personality, 34 (4), pp 577-595. New York University. ISSN: 0022-3506.
Fiss examined the effects of experimentally induced changes in alertness on response to subliminal stimulation.
Fiss, H., Goldberg, F. & Klein G.S. (1963). Effects of subliminal stimulation on imagery and discrimination. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 17, pp 31-44.
Fiss, Goldberg and Klein examined the effects of subliminal stimulation on imagery and discrimination.
Florek, W.G. (1985). An investigation of the effects of stimulation symbiotic fantasies in primipara females. St. John's University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 46 (5-B), p. 1720. ISSN: 0419-4209.
Walter Florek investigated the effects of symbiotic subliminal messages on the adaptation, anxiety and attitudes of primipara females towards pregnancy.
Florek, R. (1982). The effects of subliminal tachistoscopic presentation of drive-related stimuli on the cognitive functioning of paranoid and nonparanoid schizophrenics. Dissertation Abstracts International, 42 (10-B), pp 4190-4191. ISSN: 04104209.
Foodman, A. (1976). Hemispheric asymmetrical brain wave indicators of unconscious mental processes. Meninger Foundation, Topeka, KS. Journal of Operational Psychiatry, 7 (1), pp 3-15.
In this study, Allen Foodman explored the relationship between AER discrimination for subliminally presented stimuli and cerebral hemispheric functional asymmetry.
Three questions were posed to investigate the hypothesis: 1) Would AER laterality differences appear for picture, one of which is readily identified verbally and the other not? 2) Would AER laterality effects appear for subliminal as well as supraliminal presentations? 3) Would correlations be found between associations to the meaningful picture and the dominant side AERs?
The findings largely supported an affirmative answer to all these questions and thus demonstrated cerebral hemispheric asymmetry of unconscious mental processes.
A model was suggested to account for the findings.
Foster, R.P. (1982). The effects of subliminal tachistoscopic presentation of drive-related stimuli on the cognitive functioning of paranoid and nonparanoid schizophrenics. St. John's University Dissertation Abstracts International, 42 (10-B), pp 4190-4191. ISSN: 0419-4209.
Foulke, E. & Sticht, I.G. (1969). Review of research on the intelligibility and comprehension of accelerated speech. Psychological Bulletin, 72 (1), 50.
Fox, M. (1966). Differential effects of subliminal and supraliminal stimulation. Dissertation Abstracts, 27 (4-B), pp 1289-1290.
Major hypotheses tested were that subliminal stimuli can be effective in the absence of partial conscious cues and that subliminal and supraliminal stimuli produce differential effects.
Subjects viewed Happy and Angry (type A) figures subliminally and supraliminally, and a neutral line drawing of a face (type B) presented supraliminally. The presentations differed in that both the words and the face were visible in the supraliminal condition, whereas only the face was visible in the subliminal condition.
Changes in the subjects' descriptions of the face and the reaction times served as indices for the word's effects.
Responses were more pleasant when the face was paired (subliminally) with Happy rather than Angry. This indicates that the subjects' conscious processes were influenced by words of which they were unaware.
Sensitivity to subliminal stimuli was enhanced when the subjects suspended efforts at objectivity and passively gave themselves over to feelings and fantasies about the face they were describing.
Reaction time was no different between the subliminal and supraliminal conditions, nor was there any difference between the words within the conditions.
Distinctive effects were produced with subliminal and supraliminal stimulation. When the subjects made the visible words relevant to the task of describing the face, the words appeared more frequently in the descriptions from the supraliminal condition than with the subliminal condition. When the supraliminal figures were made irrelevant to the task, there was no significant difference in the number of reports of the words in the subliminal and supraliminal conditions. More direct expressions of the affect appeared in the subliminal than in the supraliminal condition.
Frauman, D.C. (1985). Effect of subliminal symbiotic activation on hypnotic rapport and susceptibility. Ohio University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 45, (9-B), p. 3068. ISSN: 0419-4209.
Frauman, D.C., Lynn, S.J., Hardaway, R. & Molteni, A. (1984). Effect of subliminal symbiotic activation on hypnotic rapport and susceptibility. St. Vincent Stress Center, Indianapolis, IN. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 93 (4), pp 481-483. ISSN: 0021-843X.
David Frauman, Steven Lynn, Richard Hardaway and Andrew Molteni studied 2 groups of subjects matched for susceptibility (high, medium, low) as measured by the Stanford Hypnotic susceptibility scale -- Form A.
The experimental Subjects received symbiotic ("Mommy and I are one") subliminal stimulation via tachistoscope in a double-blind design. The comparison group received a psychodynamically neutral stimulus. ("People are walking").
Following subliminal stimulation, subjects were hypnotized individually.
Projective tasks that indexed rapport with the hypnotist and the mother were administered during hypnosis. Rapport was also measured by rated intimacy of self-disclosure topics and by valence of topics selected to disclose to the hypnotics.
MANOVA showed that symbiotic fantasies had an impact on measures assumed to be relevant to affective, relationship factors in hypnosis.
Subjects in the "Mommy" group selected more positively valanced topics to disclose to the hypnotist. However, no interaction between hypnotic susceptibility level and symbiotic activation was found, suggesting that susceptibility does not mediate the rapport.
Fribourg, A. (1981, June). The effect of fantasies of merging with a good mother on schizophrenic pathology. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 169 (6), pp 337-347. ISSN: 0022-3018.
This study was carried out in order to investigate the effect of the subliminal symbiotic stimulation alone and in conjunction with an enhancement procedure on the pathology of relatively differentiated and relatively undifferentiated schizophrenics.
It was hypothesized that enhancing the positive attributes of the schizophrenic's image of his mother prior to stimulating a fantasy of a symbiotic merger might increase his ability to benefit from the subliminal symbiotic stimulus.
The results did not support this hypothesis.
Differentiated schizophrenics who received both enhancement procedure and the subliminal symbiotic stimulus showed no pathology reduction, whereas differentiated schizophrenics who received only the subliminal symbiotic stimulus manifested significant reductions in both pathological thinking and pathological behavior.
Undifferentiated schizophrenics showed no reduction in pathology after the symbiotic stimulus regardless of whether or not they also received the enhancement procedure.
The subliminal enhancement alone, ie. without the symbiotic stimulus, resulted in reductions in pathological behavior for both differentiated and undifferentiated schizophrenics.
It was concluded that although enhancing the positive attributes of the schizophrenic's maternal representation did not increase his ability to benefit from subliminal symbiotic stimulation, it did reduce pathology in it's own right.
Friedman, S. (1976) Perceptual registration of the analyst outside of awareness. Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 45 (1), pp 128-130.
Stanley Friedman describes a dream analysis which he knew in advance referred to his patient's perceptual registration of him outside of awareness in an extra-analytic setting.
Frith, U. (1972). The Georgian School of psychology: Impressions from a visit to Tbilisi. Medical Research Council Developmental Psychology Unit, London, England. Bulletin of the British Psychological Society, 25 (88), pp 197-201.
Uta Frith describes and discusses the concept of "set" which is central to the Georgian school of psychology. The original experiments leading to set theory are described.
Ongoing research, not hitherto published in English is described: a study of the cognitive structures of educationally subnormal children, an experiment in subliminal perception and a series of studies in semantics.
Fritzler, D.E., Shevrin, H. & Smith, W.H. (1970). Subliminally stimulated brain and verbal responses of twins differing in repressiveness. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 76, (1), pp 39-46. ISSN: 0021-843X.
By combining the average evoked response (AER) technique with subliminal stimulation, it has been possible to investigate unconscious mental processes in an objective and replicable way.
Previous work has shown that the AER can discriminate between two subliminal stimuli (flashed at 1 msec.), while free associations have been found to contain stimulus related words.
Repressiveness, as rated on the basis of Rorschach performance, appears to be related to a diminution of evoked response amplitude and stimulus-related associates.
In the current study, 12 pairs of twins were used as subjects.
Six pairs differed markedly in repressiveness; 6 pairs were similar in repressiveness.
Replicating previous results, it was found that the repressive twins had smaller AER amplitudes than their nonrepressive siblings and associated fewer stimulus-related words.
For supraliminal exposure (30 msec.), there was a tendency for amplitude of ARE to be reversed as a function of repressiveness.
The findings are discussed with respect to attentional and defensive factors.
Froufe, T.M. & Sierra, D.B. (1985). Perception without awareness. University Autonoma de Madrid, Spain. Boletin de Psicologia (Spain), 7, pp 7-50. Language: SPANISH.
This article provides a review of the literature concerning the relationship between consciousness and perception and the issue of subliminal perception.
Methodological issues are discussed, as are selective attention, central masking and binocular rivalry.
Conscious and unconscious perceptual processes are compared.
Frumkes, T.E., Sekuler, M.D., Barris, M.C., Reiss, E.H. & Chalupa, L.M. (1973). Rod-Cone interaction in human scotopic vision -- I. temporal analysis. Queens College, City University of New York. Vision Research, 13 (7), pp 1269-1282.
Frumkes, Sekuler, Barris, Reiss and Chalupa studied the subliminal interactions between spatially superimposed stimuli in dark-adapted human observers.
Rods and cones were selectively stimulated.
Contrary to prior research, rod-cone interaction was demonstrated and rod signals were found to have a longer latency than cone signals.
Fudin, R. (1986). Subliminal psychodynamic activation: Mommy and I are not yet one. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 63 (3), pp 1159-1179.
Fudin, R. (1987). Subliminal psychodynamic activation: note on illumination and the bleaching hypothesis. Perceptual & Motor Skill, 64 (3 - part 2), pp 1223-1230.
Fudin, R. (1987). Response to Weinberger's comments on "subliminal psychodynamic activation: Mommy and I are not yet one". Perceptual & Motor Skills, 64 (2), pp 639-642.
Fulford, P.F. (1980). The effect of subliminal merging stimuli on test anxiety. Doctoral dissertation, St. John's University, New York. Dissertation Abstracts International, 41 (4-B), p. 1503.
Paul Fulford examined the effect of subliminal merging stimuli on test anxiety.
The question asked was "whether the subliminal stimulation of symbiotic fantasies would decrease test anxiety states".
Results were measured by verbal recognition memory, psychomotor performance (as measured by a test of reaction time), and state anxiety scores on the State Trait Anxiety Inventory.
Group one received the experimental stimulus "Mommy and I are one".
Group two received the neutral stimulus "People are walking".
During each session, all subjects received pre- and post-treatment measures of psychomotor performance, anxiety level and verbal recognition memory.
Subjects in the experimental group were found to exhibit an increased level of verbal recognition memory.
The hypothesis that psychomotor activity, as measured by a test of reaction time, would be affected by the experimental treatment was not supported.
These results are consistent with studies where no relation between physiological measures and anxiety levels were found, using blood pressure and heart rate.
Gable, M., Wilkens, H.T., Harris, L. & Feinberg, R. (1987). An evaluation of subliminally embedded sexual stimuli in graphics. Journal of Advertising, 16 (1), pp 26-31.
Gabriecik, A., Fazio, R.H. (1984). Priming and frequency estimation: A strict test of the availability heuristic. Indiana University, Bloomington. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 10 (1), pp 85-89. ISSN: 0146-1672.
Adele Gabriecik & Russell Fazio studied the mediating process by manipulating availability directly using a subliminal priming procedure.
In Experiment 1, the subjects participated in a recognition experiment that showed that the word presentation was indeed subliminal.
In Experiment 2, the subjects were exposed to a series of words, none of which contained the letter "T"; identification of the words was intended to give subjects practice at the task.
Subjects were then asked to identify 4 words out of the 40 flashed words (each containing the letter "T").
Finally subjects were primed with "T" words or not so primed as they verbally identified the words presented in each trail and were asked to judge the occurrence of letters.
Results show that subjects primed with the letter "T" judged the letter to occur more frequently than did the unprimed subjects.
It is suggested that the mediating process underlying use of availability heuristic is based on the ease of retrieval for frequency estimation.
Gade, P.A., & Gertman, D. (1979). Listening to compressed speech: The effects of instructions, experience and preference. Technical Paper 369, Education Technology and Simulation Technical Area, Alexandria, VA; U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences.
Paul Gade and David Gertman attempted to assess the effects of different information-seeking strategies on the rate at which individuals chose to listen to passages of time-compressed speech, and on their comprehension of those passages.
The research also assessed the effects of prior experience with compressed speech on listening rates and on comprehension by the subjects.
The subjects were asked to listen to 4 passages of speech in a self-paced situation, ie. at rates that would allow them to process the information ar rapidly as possible with no loss in comprehension.
Prior to listening to the passages, half of the participants were required to listen to speech compressed to twice the normal rate, whilst the other half listened to speech at the normal rate.
Half of each of these two prior-experience groups were given instruction designed to induce epistemic curiosity motivation.
The remaining subjects in each of the prior- experience groups were given neutral instructions.
All participants were given 10-item, multiple choice comprehension tests at the end of each speech passage.
After listening to the fourth speech passage, participants were asked to indicate their preferred listening rates.
Speed and accuracy in listening to compressed speech were not effected by the epistemic curiosity conditions.
Prior exposure to compressed speech led to consistently faster listening rates on each of the four passages of speech.
Personnel preferred to listen to speech rates well above normal speaking rates.
Prior experience with compressed speech did not influence preferred listening rates.
Prior experience with compressed speech did, however, influence the subjects' listening rates when they were induced to listen to speech as rapidly as possible (p < .001).
Results were discussed in terms of Berlyne's (1954 & 1960) epistemic curiosity hypothesis, and in relation to the results of preference research by Lass, Foulke, Nester and Comerci (1974).
Gadlin, W. & Fiss, H. (1967). Odor as a facilitator of the effects of subliminal stimulation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 7 (1), pp 95-100. ISSN: 0022-3514.
Gaethke-Brandt, J.E. (1986). The effect of auditory subliminal deactivating messages on motor and task performance of hyperkinetic children. Dissertation Abstracts International, 47 (4-A), p. 1184.
Galbraith, P.L. & Barton, B.W. (1990). Subliminal Relaxation: Myth or Method. Weber State University. Unpublished Dissertation.
Patricia Galbraith and Brad Barton carried out this study in order to ascertain whether subliminals are effective as relaxation tools, and if they are, how lasting is the effect.
The hypothesis is that the subliminal messages will cause a lower anxiety score on both the physiological and subjective measures, and that these effects can be maintained for at least 24 hours.
The true purpose of the experiment was disguised for the subjects so as to reduce the bias which might accompany the demand characteristics.
The experimenters were kept blind by not knowing the content of the subliminal and placebo tapes, until all the subjects were run.
The subliminal tapes used were created by Dr. Eldon Taylor of Progressive Awareness Research, using a patented process.
Three biological measures of anxiety were used; middle and index finger's Galvanic Skin Response, peripheral skin temperature recorded at the wrist, and the digital extensor muscle potential.
To obtain pre- and post-test measures of the subjective level of anxiety, the State Trait Anxiety Inventory was used.
Using a 2-way ANOVA, it was found that the overall effect of the subliminal messages as compared to the placebo tapes was insignificant. This does not, however, rule out that a possible positive subliminal effect could still exist. Variables such as a longer exposer time and more sensitive recording analysis procedures may increase the detection of a positive effect. The large individual differences also suggest the need for a more adequate sample size.
Although the bio-feedback measures for the experiment did not uphold the original hypothesis for the experiment, the State Trait Anxiety Inventory did show a significant decrease due to the subjects' exposure to the subliminal tape.
Galland, J.H. (1967). The effects of experimental drive arousal on response to subliminal stimulation. New York University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 27 (11-b), p. 4123.
Jeffrey Galland examined the effects of experimental drive arousal on responseto subliminal stimulation.
Ganovski, L. (1977). The role of peripheral perceptions in solving mental tasks. Ministry of Public Education, Suggestology Research Institute, Sofia Bulgaria. Activatas Nervosa Superior, 19 (4), pp 280-281. ISSN: 0001-7604.
Ganovski examined the role of peripheral perceptions in solving mental tasks.
It was found that unconscious perception contributes to solving mental tasks, and also that this effect is more evident in girls than boys.
Geisler, C.J. (1983). A new experimental method for the study of the psychoanalytic concept of repression. New York University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 43 (11-B), p. 3757. ISSN: 0419-4209.
Geisler, C.J. (1986). The use of subliminal psychodynamic activation in the study of repression. New York University, School of Social Work. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51 (4), pp 884-851. ISSN: 0022-3514.
Carol Geisler used subliminal psychodynamic activation in the study of the clinical phenomenon of repression.
The subjects selected for the presence of high sexual guilt were divided into 2 groups.
One group showed a high degree of personality development.
From this it was inferred that this group was prone toward; (a) the use of repression rather than more primitive defenses, and (b) oedipal rather than pre-oedipal conflict.
The second group showed a lesser degree of personality development, thus the above inferences did not apply.
The subliminal psychodynamic activation method was used with both groups to evaluate effects on repression of intensifying and diminishing unconscious conflict over sexual wishes.
The subjects were exposed to verbal stimuli, which were; a) conflict intensifying, ("Loving Dad is wrong"), b) conflict reducing, ("Loving Daddy is OK"), and c) neutral control, ("People are walking").
Each stimuli type was accompanied by a congruent picture both before (in 1 condition) and after (in another condition) a recall test of both neutral and sexual material.
The conflict-reduction condition did not affect memory of the passages, but the conflict-intensification condition did (a) for the group with the greater degree of personality development, (b) when this condition was presented before the material to be remembered and (c) for the recall of neutral passages.
The special conditions necessary for the demonstration of repression show why it has previously been difficult to show evidence of repression in laboratory experiments.
Genkino, O.A. & Shostakovich, G.S. (1983). Elaboration of a conditioned reflex in chronic alcoholics using an unrecognizable motivationally significant word. Zh. Vyssh. Nerv. Deiat., 33 (6), pp 1010-1018.
Genkino, O.A. & Shostakovich, G.S. (1986). Conditioning of patients with chronic alcoholism by means of a subthreshold motivationally significant word. Soviet Neurology & Psychiatry, Sum. vol. 19 (2), pp 87-100.
Genkino, O.A. & Shostakovich, G.S. (1987). Cortical evoked activity in the process of elaborating a conditioned connection using an unrecognizable word. Fiziol. Cheloveka., 13 (3), pp 369-378.
George, S.G. & Jennings, L.B. (1972). Re-examination of effect of a subliminal verbal food stimulus on subjective hunger ratings. Psychological Reports, 30 (2), pp 521-522. ISSN: 0033-2941.
Stephen George and Luther Jennings examined the effects of subliminal verbal food stimulus.
The word "cheese" was flashed 30 times for two sets of experimental and control groups.
One set received the stimulus below, the other significantly above, a forced choice detection threshold.
There was no significant increase in hunger ratings found, nor was there even a trend.
The results obtained therefore with Spence (1964) who did not use a valid forced-choice method or control group.
Gheorghiu, V. & Kruse, P. (1990). The psychology of suggestion: and integrative perspective. In Human Suggestibility by J.F. Schunaku. Routledge.
Vladimir Gheorghiu and Peter Kruse discuss integrative approaches to modern psychology through the research of suggestive influences.
The subject matter includes discussions between ambiguity and stability, categorizing three mechanisms; 1) reflex, 2) suggestion, and 3) rational.
It is suggested that suggestion is a strategy to make unambiguous and stable order an indispensable basis of action.
Correlations between suggestion/suggestibility and stability are made.
Giddan, N.S. (1967). Recovery through images of briefly flashed stimuli. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35 (1), pp 1-19. ISSN: 0022-3506.
Giovacchini, P.L. (1984). The quest for dependent autonomy. University of Illinois College of Medicine. International Forum for Psychoanalysis, 1 (2), pp 153-166. ISSN: 0738-8217.
Peter Giovacchini examined the scientific testing of hypotheses in psychoanalytic research.
In particular, he referred to the testing of hypotheses by L.H. Silverman et al.
It was Silverman who hypothesized that fulfillment of fantasies of oneness and symbiosis could, under some circumstances, help schizophrenic patients.
In this article, it was argued that, while the work of Silverman et al does reveal a good deal about characterological psychopathology and therapy, it is an oversimplification to give this state of oneness a dominant position in emotional development and therapeutic integration.
Glennon, S.S. (1984). The effect of functional brain asymmetry and hemisphericity on the subliminal activation of residual oedipal conflicts. New York University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 44 (12-b), pp 3931-3932. ISSN: 0419-4209.
Subjects were tachistopically exposed to oedipal conflicts arousing and conflict-alleviating messages and congruent pictures.
The response, or sensitivity, to the conflict-related stimuli, was measured by the subject's dart-throwing ability.
With the main group of subjects, the stimuli were sent first to the right hemisphere and then to the left. This was in order to test the hypothesis that the right hemisphere may be the locus of unconscious processes.
The hemisphericity of the subjects was tested using the conjugate lateral eye movement test.
It was hypothesized that the right hemisphericity subjects would be more responsive to the subliminal stimuli.
With another group of subjects it was hypothesized that the strongest results would be found when the verbal messages were sent to the left hemisphere, and a congruent picture to the right.
No effects were found due to either hemispheric placement or the hemisphericity of the subjects.
The most significant results were found when the verbal messages were sent to the right brain and the congruent pictures to the left.
Glover, E.D. (1977). The influence of subliminal perception on smoking behavior. Texas Woman's University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 38 (9-A), p. 5265.
Elbert Glover attempted to find out whether subliminal perception could be used as a means for altering cigarette smoking behavior.
The experimental situation consisted of two different films, shown at two different sessions, with subliminal stimulation for the treatment group.
The entire association between smoking and quitting smoking was presented subliminally.
The results showed that smoking behavior was not altered by subliminal perception as carried out in this study.
Glover, E.D. (1979). Decreasing smoking behavior through subliminal stimulation treatments. Journal of Drug Education, 9 (3), pp 273-283.
Goldiamond, I. (1958). Indicators of perception: I. Subliminal perception, subception, unconscious perception: An analysis in terms of psychophysical indicator methodology. Psychological Bulletin, 55, pp 373-411.
Goldstein, M.J. & Barhol, R.P. Fantasy response to subliminal stimuli. Journal of Social and Abnormal Psychology, pp 22-26.
Goldstein, M.J. & Davis, D. (1961). The impact of stimuli registering outside of awareness upon personal preferences. Journal of Personality, 29.
Goldstone, G., Goldfarb, J., Strong, J. & Russell, J. (1962). Replication: the effect of subliminal shock upon the judged intensity of weak shock. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 14, p. 222.
Golland, J.H. (1967). The effects of experimental drive arousal on response to subliminal stimulation. New York University. Dissertation Abstracts, 27 (11-B), p. 4123.
Jeffrey Golland examined the effects of aggressive subliminal stimulation.
Goncalves, O.F. & Ivey, A.E. (1987). The effects of unconscious presentation of information on therapist conceptualizations, intentions and responses. University of Porto, Faculty of Psychology, Portugal. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 43 (2), pp 237-245. ISSN: 0021-9762.
Oscar Goncalves and Allen Ivey studied the effects of tachistoscopic presentation of affective words on subjects' conceptualizations, intentions, and responses to a simulated client.
Four treatments were used; 1) subliminal negative emotional concepts, 2) subliminal positive emotional concepts, 3) supraliminal negative emotional concepts, and 4) supraliminal positive emotional concepts.
After the treatment, the subjects were exposed to a simulated client, whom they were asked to evaluate, respond to, and report the cognitive intentions that guided their responses.
It was found that the subliminal presentation of positive emotional concepts on subjects' conceptualizations, intentions, and responses had a significant effect.
Gonzalez, J.L. (1985). Subliminal stimulation and psychopathologic diagnosis. Psiquis, 6 (1), pp 30+.
Gordon, C.M. & Spence, D.P. (1966). The facilitating effects of food set and food deprivation on responses to a subliminal food stimulus. Research Center For Mental Health, New York University. Journal of Personality, 34 (3), pp 406-415. ISSN: 0022-3506.
Carol Gordon and Donald Spence tested whether the sensitivity to a subliminal stimulus could be increased by arousing a congruent cognitive set in food-deprived subjects.
The experimental group read a paragraph about food while the control group read a non-food related paragraph.
Both groups were then exposed to subliminal cheese stimulus, followed by a supraliminal list of cheese associates and matched control words.
A second set of subjects were exposed to the same paragraphs and a blank slide, followed again by the same list of words.
Subjects who had been deprived of food, and were presented with the food set and the subliminal stimulus, showed a greater effect then the subjects who had not been deprived of food, who read the non-food paragraph and were exposed to the subliminal stimulus.
It was suggested that the subject's cognitive awareness is particularly important when using verbal stimuli and verbal responses.
The subjects's must also be helped to code his bodily sensations, particularly when the stimulus is subliminal.
Gordon G. (1967). Semantic determination by subliminal verbal stimuli: A quantitative approach, Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of London.
Gordon used a semantic differential to measure the degree of subliminal perception.
Gordon, W.K. (1983). Combination of cognitive group therapy and subliminal stimulation in treatment of text-anxious college males. North Texas State University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 43 (11-B), p. 3731. ISSN: 0419-4209.
Grant, R.H. (1980). The effects of subliminally projected visual stimuli on skill development, selected attention, and participation in racquetball by college students. East Texas State University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 41 (2-A), p, 585.
Roger Grant carried out this study in order to investigate the effects of subliminally presented visual stimuli on; 1) the development of racquetball ceiling shot skill, 2) the submission of selected attention toward the racquetball ceiling shot, and 3) the response level for participation in racquetball.
Subjects underwent one of four treatments; 1) no exposure to subliminal stimuli, 2) exposure to a subliminally projected film loop depicting two demonstrations of the racquetball ceiling shot - one performed by a male, the other a female, 3) exposure to a subliminally projected slide containing a man and a woman embracing in the nude with the superimposed words "racquetball", "relate" and "sex", and 4) exposure to a simultaneous subliminal projection of a film loop depicting two demonstrations of the racquetball ceiling shot - one performed
Greenberg, R.P. & Fisher, S. (1980). Freud's penis-baby equation: Exploratory tests of a controversial theory. State University of New York, Upstate Medical Center. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 53 (4), pp 333-342. ISSN: 0007-1129.
Roger Greenberg and Seymour Fisher studied Freud's idea that pregnancy has phallic significance for women.
Tests were carried out to see whether there is a link between pregnancy and phallic imagery.
It was found that there is such a link as subjects produced significantly more phallic imagery on an inkblot measure during pregnancy than they produced in the nonpregnant state.
Pregnant subjects also produced significantly more phallic imagery than did a control group of nonpregnant subjects.
The "penis-baby" link was seen as the subjects increased significantly in their phallic imagery under the impact of a subliminal pregnancy message.
No such increase occurred in the group of subjects who receiving a subliminal message dealing with being penetrated.
Groeger, J.A. (1984) Evidence of unconscious semantic processing from a forced error situation. Queen's University of Belfast, Northern Ireland. British Journal of Psychology, 75 (3), pp 305-314. ISSN: 0007-1269.
Groeger carried out a study to determine whether subjects extract information from words presented below their recognition and awareness thresholds.
A series of target words was used to generate the word matrix, which was a set of 24 words related to the target word.
The subjects chose the word they thought had been shown from the word matrix for that particular target.
It was thought that the alternative chosen was a function of the type of processing the target was receiving.
It was found that structural analysis of the target predominated below recognition threshold, whereas semantic analysis predominated below awareness threshold.
Groeger, J.A. (1986). Predominant and non-predominant analysis: Effects of level of presentation. MRC Applied Psychology Unit, Cambridge, England. British Journal of Psychology, 77 (1), pp 109-116. ISSN: 007-1269.
In a previous study, Groeger found that stimuli outside awareness receive a predominantly semantic analysis, whereas unrecognized stimuli are processed in a predominantly structural fashion.
The aim of this study was to extend these findings to another sense mode -- hearing -- and a different task -- sentence completion.
From the results it was seen that non-predominant analyses, if carried out at all, did not influence the outcomes of predominant processing.
This suggests that the type of analysis automatically carried out on stimuli depends on the level at which they are received and requires a complex, nonlinear view of the perceptual process.
Gruber, R.P. (1970). Learning without verbalization of awareness. Psychology, 7 (1), pp 2-8. Biomedical Department, Edgewood Arsenal, MD.
Ronald Gruber discusses learning without verbalization.
Examples of learning without the verbalization of awareness include; 1) sleep, 2) state-dependent learning, 3) conditioning under anesthesia, 4) learning after bilateral hippocampal lesions, 5) unilateral cerebral hemispheric learning, 6) agnosia, 7) nonverbal classical conditioning, and 8) subception.
Also discussed was the potential for more such learning situations.
Grzegolowska-Klarkowska, H. (1981). Perceptual defense -- mechanics, correlates, synthesis: II. Przeglad Psychologiczny, 24 (2), pp 299-318. ISSN: 004-85675.
Helena Grzegolowska-Klarkowska discusses perceptual defense .
From the learning and information processing theory, possible mechanics for the way perceptual defense (PD) works are pit forward.
Also discussed is subception versus the perception of the partial cues hypothesis.
It is concluded that PD and repression are two different defense mechanisms that operate at different points along the information processing continuum.
Guthrie, C. & Weiner, M. (1966). Subliminal perception or perception of partial cues with pictorial stimuli. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 3 (6), pp 619-628. ISSN: 0022-3514.
Guttman, G., Ganglberger, J. (1967). Conditioned verbal reactions triggered by subliminal thalamic stimulation. University of Vienna, Psychologisches Inst., Austria. Zeitschrift fur Experimentelle und Angewandte Psychologie, 14 (3), pp 542-544. ISSN: 0044-2712, Language: GERMAN.
Giselher Guttman and Josef Ganglberger examined the ability of thalamic stimulations to evoke verbal CRS.
During neurosurgery, the patient was asked to recite the numbers 1 to 9 in any order.
A number pair was selected and a thalamic stimulus given whenever the 1st number of the pair was spoken.
In the test phase thalamic stimuli were given only after numbers that differed from the preferred numbers.
It was found that the occurrence of the 2nd number was given significantly more often after thalamic stimulation.
Habeck, B.K. (1984). The effect of gender, hemispheric preference, semanticity and lateralization upon sensitivity to auditory subliminal stimuli on children. Marquette University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 45 (2-A), pp 460-461. ISSN: 0419-4209.
Beverly Habeck performed this study in order to determine to what extent, if any, the variables gender, hemispheric preference, semanticity, message lateralization and/or their interactions influenced children's susceptibility to auditory subliminal stimuli as measured by subjects rating their internal and external affective environments.
Children, from 8- to 12-years-old, were screened for dexterity, unilateral hemispheric preference and functional auditory threshold.
Stimuli were presented at 5dB below that threshold through headphones.
Verbal and nonverbal positive subliminal stimuli were used.
Following subliminal stimulation, the subjects were asked to look at a projected slide of a blurred neutral face.
The subjects rated the face on 5 adjective continua and then rated their personal affect, using the same 5 scales.
The results show that; 1) the subjects with left hemisphere preference were significantly more sensitive to subliminal messages than the subjects preferring right hemisphere cognition, 2) the subjects processing messages unilaterally were significantly more susceptible to subliminal messages than subjects in the control group, 3) the subjects' personal affect was influenced at a significantly greater level than subjects' impressions of the neutral face. 4) significant differences emerged among the rating scales employed, with some scales being more sensitive than others to the subliminal effect.
Haberstroh, J. (1984). Can't ignore subliminal ad charges. Advertising Age, 55 (61), pp 3, 42, 44. ISSN: 0001-8899.
Jack Haberstroh discusses the work of Wilson Bryan Key.
Key believes that subliminal messages are widespread in advertising, and has written three successful books on subliminal persuasion, with the fourth nearing completion.
Advertising executives view Key as being paranoid, and obsessed with sex.
A survey of art directors of 100 advertising agencies, selected from the Standard Directory of Advertising Agencies, indicated that the majority of respondents disagreed that creative or account people added extra messages to their work.
Halpren, S. (1985) Sound Health, San Francisco: Harper & Row.
Steven Halpren asserts that unheard sounds and vibrations are as important as the ones which are perceived.
Hamilton, S.B. & Bornstein, P.H. (1979). Broad-spectrum behavioral approach to smoking cessation: Effects of social support and paraprofessional training on the maintenance of treatment effects. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 47, pp 598-600.
Hansen, P. (1984). Subliminal perception. Paper presented to International Motivation Conference. Canberra, Australia.
Dr. Philip Hansen states that the subliminal domain is an essential, but often overlooked, partner in the process of integrating the wonders of the cosmos with our internal universe of perceptual ideation.
An example of the use of subliminals to positive effect, is in dealing with test anxiety.
Tests are a vital part of schooling, but test failure is not always the result of insufficient conscious knowledge. Often it's inadequacy of personal subjective state systems which supply the psychic resources to enable the objective state the preciseness tests require.
Subliminal techniques give us access to the support subsystems of the subjective states.
Hardaway, R.A. (1986). (Cited in Bower, N., 1986, p. 156) University of Southern California in Los Angeles.
Richard Hardaway, in an unpublished statistical analysis of 68 studies using Silverman's "Mommy and I are one" subliminal message discovered a small, statistically significant difference in behavioral improvement for people exposed to the message.
Hardaway, R.A. (1987). Facts and fantasies in subliminal psychodynamic activation: a qualitative analysis. Dissertation Abstracts International, 47 (12-b, part 1), pp 5054.
Hardy, G.R. & Legge, D. (1968). Cross-modal induction of changes in sensory thresholds. University College, London, UK. Quarterly Journal of Experiment Psychology, 20 (1), pp 20-29.
Two experiments were performed to test the hypothesis that threshold changes induced by emotional stimulation are mediated centrally.
In the first experiment, the visual awareness threshold for neutral material was raised for the subjects by simultaneous auditory presentation of emotional words.
This result supported the hypothesis.
In the second experiment, a similar effect was obtained when the two modalities were reversed.
The results showed that subliminal stimulation through one modality with emotional material impairs detection performance in a different modality.
Lower signal detection sensitivity may be caused either by attenuation of incoming signals, or by an increase in the level of "noise" against which the signal is received.
Harrison, R.H. (1970). Effect of subliminal shock conditioning on recall. Boston University. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 75 (1), pp 19-29.
Robert Harrison presented words at chance recognition levels and paired them with either the abrupt initiation or cessation of shock conditioning procedures.
Experiment I showed that words associated with abrupt initiation of shock conditioning appeared later in free recall than words associated with cessation of shock conditioning.
Experiment II replicated the results of Experiment I when the subjects task during conditioning was irrelevant to recognizing words.
Experiment III, using 50 percent of the stimulus intensity of Experiments I and II, demonstrated residual differentiation in recall between the words actually presented and those whose presentation was simulated.
Results are interpreted as evidence for subliminal perception.
Hart, L. (1973). The effects of noxious subliminal stimuli on the modification of attitudes toward alcoholism: A pilot study. Boston City Hospital, MA. British Journal of Addiction, 68 (2), pp 87-90.
Hasher, L. & Zacks, R.T. (1979). Automatic and effortful processes in memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 108, pp 356-388.
Haspel, K.C. & Harris, R.S. (1982). Effect of tachistoscopic stimulation of subconscious oedipal wishes on competitive performance: A failure to replicate. Kent County Mental Health Center, Warwick, RI. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 91 (6), pp 437-443. ISSN: 0021-843X.
Katherine Haspel and Robert Harris studied the effects of subconscious oedipal wishes on competitive performance.
The research was designed to, (a) replicate the study by L.H. Silverman et al (1978), who found that subjects' dart-throwing performance improved after they viewed the subliminal stimulus "Beating dad isOK" and worsened after they viewed "Beating dad is wrong"; (b) to see if dart-throwing behavior is also affected by supraliminal oedipal stimulation; and (c) to investigate the influence of priming (i.e., pre-experimental arousal of oedipal wishes) on the effect of tachistoscopic stimulation.
Silverman's results were not replicated despite close adherence to the methodology, nor were other significant effects found.
Hayden, B. & Silverstein, R. (1983). The effects of tachistoscopic oedipal stimulation on competitive dart throwing. Brown University. Psychological Research Bulletin, Lund University, 23 (1). ISSN: 0348-3673.
Brian Hayden and Robert Silverstein studied the effects of subliminal psychodynamic activation on competitive dart-throwing.
Pre- and post-test measures were taken of dart-throwing accuracy under various experimental conditions.
The experimental conditions consisted of tachistoscopic exposures (4 msec) of verbal and congruous pictorial stimuli.
In experiment 1, the subjects were exposed to the subliminal stimuli; "Beating Dad is okay"' "Beating Dad is wrong", "Mommy and I are one" and "People are walking."
In experiment 2, the subjects were exposed to the subliminal stimuli; "Beating Dad is OK", "Beating Dad is wrong", "Defeating Dad is OK" and "Defeating Dad is wrong."
In experiment 3, the subjects were exposed to the subliminal stimuli; "Winning Mom is ok", "Winning Mom is wrong", "Winning Dad is OK" and "Winning Dad is wrong."
In Experiments 1 and 2, stimuli that sanctioned the idea of beating father in competition enhanced dart-throwing accuracy, while stimuli that condemned this idea impaired accuracy.
Experiment III demonstrated that stimuli sanctioning the idea of winning mother enhanced performance, while stimuli condemning this idea impaired accuracy.
Heidorn, R., Jr. (May 16, 1988). Jail tries subliminal, and disputed technique. The Philadelphia Inquirer, pp 1-B, 3-B.
This article describes a 6-month trial of subliminal tapes for reducing absenteeism among sheriff's officers and correctional officers.
The three themes used were promoting positive self-image, relieving stress and reducing absenteeism.
Heilbrun, K.S. (1980a). The effects of subliminally presented oedipal stimuli on competitive performance. University of Texas, Austin. Dissertation Abstracts International, 41 (4-B), p. 1506.
Kirk Heilbrun examined the effects of subliminally presented oedipal stimuli on competitive performance.
Heilbrun, K.S. (1980b). Silverman's subliminal psychodynamic activation: A failure to replicate. University of Texas, Austin. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 89 (4), pp 560-566. ISSN: 0021-843X.
Kirk Heilbrun tested Silverman's report that subliminally presented stimuli, designed to increase or decrease oedipal conflict, can affect competitive performance.
None of the experiments showed any difference between performance following exposure to subliminal oedipal conditions and performance following neutral baseline conditions.
The results should be also considered in light of the changes which were made over the course of these experiments that produced a bias in favor of replication.
Heilbrun, K.S. (1982). Reply to Silverman. Florida State University, Tallahassee. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 91 (2), pp 134-135. ISSN: 0021-843X.
Kirk Heilbrun replies to comments made by Silverman regarding the author's failure to replicate Silverman's work on subliminal symbiotic stimulation as an adjunct to systematic desensitization.
Henley, S.H. (1975). Cross modal effects of subliminal verbal stimuli. University College, London, UK. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 16 (1), pp 30-36.
Sue Henley conducted a cross model version of an experiment by C.J. Smith et al on the effects of subliminal auditory cue words upon judgements of a supraliminal visual stimulus.
To one ear she put supraliminal sounds or descriptions. To the other ear she provided, or didn't provide according to the experiment subliminal cues.
It was found that, when subliminal cues were provided, performance was improved.
The results support the hypothesis that material in an unattended channel is fully analyzed for meaning and may be integrated with materials in an attended channel when it is relevant to the ongoing task.
The results therefore show that the use of subliminal communication can actually facilitate conventional, traditional learning.
The same results were also found when visual subliminal cues were used in place of the audio subliminal cues.
This provides support for the Poetzl phenomenon.
Henley, S.H. (1975). Responses to homophones as a function of cue words on the unattended channel. University College, London, UK. British Journal of Psychology, 67 (4), pp 559-567.
Sue Henley tested a prediction based on the model of attention advanced by Dixon (1971), that the responses to homophones presented to one ear, at supraliminal intensities, would be influenced by subliminal cue words presented to the other ear.
The results supported the hypothesis in terms of response latencies, but not in terms of verbal content.
It is suggested that these data make it possible to reconcile apparent discrepancies between the results of other studies of dichotic listening.
Henley, S.H. (1984). Unconscious perception revisited: A comment on Merikle's (1982) paper. University of London, University College, England. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 22 (2), pp 121-124. ISSN: 0090-5054.
Sue Henley states that, contrary to P.M. Merikle's implications, the case for unconscious perception does not stand or fall with evidence from the backward masking studies that are the focus of his criticisms.
Evidence that the brain can respond to stimulus material of which the recipient remains unaware is provided.
It is argued that, since the threshold-determining procedures employed in the backward masking studies were inappropriate, Merikle's particular criticism of these procedures are irrelevant.
Henley, S.H., & Dixon, N.F. (1974). Laterality differences in the effect of incidental stimuli upon evoked imagery. British Journal of Psychology, 65 (4), pp 529-536. ISSN: 0007-1269.
Henley, S.H. & Dixon, N.F. (1976). Preconscious processing in schizophrenics: An exploratory investigation. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 49 (2), pp 161-166. ISSN: 0007-1129.
Herrick, R.M. (1973). Increment thresholds for multiple identical flashes in the peripheral retina. U.S. Naval Air Development Center, Warminster, PA. Journal of the Optical Society of America, 63 (10), pp 1261-1265.
Robert Herrick performed this experiment to determine the light detection threshold for various numbers of subliminal flashes.
The results indicated that when the flash duration, t, equaled the interval, i, between successive flashes, the threshold luminance was described by the equation , I=a+(b/nt), where a and b are constants.
This equation is analogous to the Blondel-Rey Law.
When the interval was held constant at 30 msec, the total threshold energy, E, increased linearly with the number of flashes regardless of the duration of the identical flashes in the train.
As the interval between 2 successive subliminal flashes increased, E increased until it reached a value roughly equal to twice its initial value, and thereafter it remained constant
Hess, J. (1981). Subliminal suggestion during anesthesia to control postoperative complications. (Letter). AANA Journal, 49 (2), pp 209-210. ISSN: 0094-6354.
In this letter to AANA Journal, John Hess describes how subliminal suggestions can be used during Innovar -nitrous oxide anesthesia to control postoperative complications, most notably pain and nausea.
In his experiment, a tape containing postoperative suggestions were played to subjects while they were under Innovar -nitrous oxide anesthetic.
The subjects were then questioned a few days postoperatively for any recall experiences they had.
Upon questioning, some of the subjects made statements that were exactly the same as on the tape, except that theywere in the subjective tense, while others imparted just the basic ideas.
When the experimental results were compared with previous anesthetic requirements for similar surgeries, the results were found to be favorable.
In conclusion Hess states that subliminal suggestions are of value in control of nausea and in the patient's acceptance of hospital procedures and routines.
Higgins, K. (1983). Marketers give quality image to generics to improve sales. Marketing News, 17 (23), p 4. ISSN: 0025-3790,
Kevin Higgins discusses the ways by which Oriove Enterprises, is fighting the problem of marketing generic drugs.
Generic drugs lack a quality image, and one approach suggested is designing the packages to form a subliminal attachment to the national brand with which it competes.
Higginson, G.D. (1926). The visual apprehension of movement under successive retinal excitations. American Journal of Psychology, 37, pp 76-77.
In this article, Glenn Higginson describes the early use of the Dodge tachistoscope in the psychology laboratory.
Hines, K.S. (1978). Subliminal psychodynamic activation of oral dependency conflicts in a group of hospitalized male alcoholics. Memphis State University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 38 (11-B), p. 4123.
Hobbs, S.R. (1984). The effects of subliminal stimulation of oedipal and symbiotic gratification fantasies on racial attitudes. New York University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 45 (3-B), p. 1018. ISSN: 0419-4209.
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the unconscious oedipal fantasy on racial prejudice, and also to explore the influence of the symbiotic gratification fantasy on racial attitudes.
The subliminal psychodynamic activation method was used to activate fantasies sanctioning oedipal feelings ("Winning Mom is OK" for males, and "Winning Dad is OK" for females) and a fantasy of symbiotic-like gratification ("Mommy and I are one").
Subjects in the experimental groups were compared to the to those receiving a neutral control stimulus ("People are walking).
A replication of a study linking the unconscious symbiotic fantasy and learning was built into this research as an independent way of evaluating if the stimulus was making an impact.
The results of this study did not support the hypothesis that sanctioning oedipal fantasies would reduce racist attitudes. Significant results were, however, attained in the opposite direction hypothesized.
Males in the oedipal group were significantly more prejudiced post-stimulation than those in the symbiotic and control groups. The female groups did not differ significantly.
In keeping with earlier studies, the activation of the symbiotic fantasy was effective in improving final examination grades.
Males in the symbiotic and oedipal groups did significantly better than the controls, but did not significantly differ from each other. Results for females were not significant.
These findings suggest that unconscious fantasies may influence racial attitudes, but that the nature of the fantasies, and the anxieties and conflicts which they are presumed to stimulate, need further study.
The difference in results for males and females raise several questions about both psychodynamic and social understanding of the differences in the way men and women develop and function in our society.
Hodorowski, L. (1986). The symbiotic fantasy as a therapeutic agent: An experimental comparison of the effects of four symbiotic contexts on manifest pathology in differentiated schizophrenics. New York University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 46 (8-B), p. 2810. ISSN: 0419-4209.
Lenore Hodorowski conducted this experiment to determine the efficacy of pictorial merging contexts for subliminal stimulation of symbiotic fantasies as a therapeutic modality for differentiated schizophrenics.
Hoffman, J.S. (1986) Review of the subliminal psychodynamic activation method. Doctor of Psychology Research Paper, Biola University, California.
Janice Hoffman performed this study in order to determine the validity of the criticisms regarding the use of subliminal psychodynamic activation (SPA), and also to ascertain the potential usefulness of SPA method for testing theoretical constructs such as intrapsychic conflict and wishes for merger.
It was found that methodological weaknesses do exist in the assessment of changes in psychopathological symptomatology due to the use of subliminal stimuli, and the specific stimuli used to effect these changes.
In studies with both schizophrenic and nonschizophrenic populations, no validity data were reported in the literature for any of the measures used.
However, in spite of the limitations in interpreting the results of SPA studies, the SPA method has been shown to be effective in producing specific results in a variety of diagnostic groups.
This method has also given further evidence of the unconscious nature of intrapsychic processes.
In this way the SPA method has at least given evidence that the pursuit of testing psychoanalytic constructs is a worthwhile and plausible effort with important implications for both the theory and treatment of psychopathological symptomatology.
Hollingworth, M. (1985, January 30). Subliminal tapes halve thefts in chain store. Retail World, p 14.
Hollingworth reported two research studies where subliminal messages reduced theft considerably.
In the first study an Australian supermarket reduced shrinkage by more that 50 percent.
In the second study, a nine-month test in several U.S. stores, shrinkage was reduced by 37 percent.
Holtzman, D. (1975). Recall and importations on a word test primed by a subliminal stimulus. Wayne State University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 36 (5-B), p. 2473.
Deanna Holtzman designed this study in order to partially replicate, validate and explore the stimulus conditions under which the phenomena reported by Spence and Gordon (1966) occur.
Under particular investigation was the effects of an oral priming subliminal stimulus on recall of a word list, taking into account a personality variable (orality) and a manipulated experimental condition of drive arousal (accepted-rejected).
The hypothesis put forward was that High Oral Rejected subjects who were subliminally stimulated, would recall and import more regressive words.
Each subjects was given a WAIS Digit-Symbol subtest, and made to feel either accepted or rejected on the basis of his performance.
The subjects were then asked to learn one of three lists of words; 1) relating to the infantile nursing situation (primitive), 2) relating to a more socialized eating situation (conceptual), and 3) a neutral subset.
The subjects were further divided into; 1) those who received a subliminal primer (milk), 2) those who received a supraliminal primer (milk), and 3) those who received a blank slide.
High and low oral subjects were determined by the responses to a questionnaire, which showed whether the subjects used food as an affection substitute under conditions of rejection or stress.
The results indicated that the high oral subjects do not import nor remember significantly more oral regressive words.
There was however a significant interaction between the subliminal variable and the kinds of words recalled from the list, in that the subjects who received subliminal stimulation recalled more primitive than conceptual words.
Hovsepian, W. & Quatman, G. (1978). Effects of subliminal stimulation of masculinity-femininity ratings of a male model. Xavier University, OH. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 46, (1), pp 155-161. ISSN: 0031-5125.
William Hovsepian and Gerald Quatman tested the effects of subliminal stimulation on masculinity-femininity ratings of a male model.
The subjects were divided into 4 groups and individually shown a slide of a male model with one of four subliminal stimuli; 1) group one group received no subliminal stimulation, 2) group 2 received a subliminal flash of white light across the image of the model, 3) group 3 was presented with the message "masculine", and 4) group 4 was presented with the subliminal message "feminine."
The subjects were asked to rate the model on a 6-point scale.
The results gave no significant difference in ratings among the groups, which indicated that subliminal stimulation did not influence masculinity-femininity value-norm-anchor judgments.
There were no significant differences in the reported perception of additional stimuli or the tendency to be relaxed among the 4 groups.
However, subjects who received the "masculine" message and reported that they were more relaxed did tend to rate the model higher in masculinity.
Hull, E.I. (1976). Ego states characteristics of enhanced utilization of subliminal registrations. University of Chicago. Dissertation Abstracts International, 37 (4-B), pp 1903-1904.
Hutchison, M. (1986). Megabrain. Ballantine Books, New York.
Michael Hutchison discusses new tools and techniques for brain growth and mind expansion.
Hylton, R.L. (1979). A comparison of the effects of aural arousal on the verbal learning of normal and learning disabled elementary school pupils. Doctoral dissertation, St. John's University, NY. Dissertation Abstracts International, 40 (3-B), p. 1393.
Robert Hylton investigated the effects of graduated levels of accessory auditory stimulation upon the verbal learning proficiency in normal and learning disabled children.
The subjects were divided into normal, visual and auditory learning disabled, and were each tested for his/her auditory threshold level.
The subjects were then given the task of learning word-number paired associates under a no-noise condition and six levels of accessory stimulation (white nose). The 6 levels included 3 subliminal and 3 supraliminal levels.
The three groups were subdivided into nine subgroups and exposed to accessory stimulation while; a) learning the material (input), b) at recall (output), and c) at both the input and output.
From the results it was found that; 1) learning was enhanced by subliminal stimulation, 2) there was no differential facilitation among the three groups, 3) presentation of accessory auditory stimulation at both the input and output levels combined did not result in better performance at either the input or output levels, and 4) there was no variation in performance between males and females.
In conclusion, the results showed that subliminal arousal facilitated short-term memory in paired associate learning in elementary pupils in general.
Jackson, J.M. (1982). A comparison of the effects of subliminally presented fantasies of merger with each parent on the pathology of male and female schizophrenics. New York University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 43 (5-B), pp 1616-1617. ISSN: 0419-4209.
Jackson, J.M. (1983). Effects of subliminal stimulation of oneness fantasies on manifest pathology in male vs. female schizophrenics. Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease, 17 (5), pp 280-289. ISSN: 0022-3018.
Jonathan Jackson examined the effects of subliminally activated fantasies of oneness with each parent on the manifest pathology of schizophrenic men and women.
The subjects were treated individually for 3 subliminal stimulation (SST) sessions on different days, when measures of pathological thinking and behavior were obtained for a baseline assessment before SST, and a critical assessment after SST.
All subjects received two subliminal oneness stimuli and a neutral-control message; 1) "Mommy and I are one" plus congruent picture, 2) "Daddy and I are one" plus congruent picture, and 3) a neutral-control message "people are walking" plus a congruent picture.
Each subject was administered a family interview and a family picture test (a card from the Children's Apperception Test).
The results for symbiotic stimulation show that; (a) the "mommy" stimulus reduced pathological behavior in males but not females, and (b) the "daddy" stimulus reduced pathological thinking in females but not males.
The results of the family interview and picture test indicate that the more male Subject experienced active involvement with one parent, the more they reduced pathology after the oneness stimulus involving that parent, and the less they did so after the stimulus involving the other parent.
Jeffmar, M. (1976).Ways of cognitive action: A study of syncretism, flexibility and exactness. Lund University. Psychological Research Bulletin, NO. 1 (Mono series), 47 pages.
Marianne Jeffmar studied the relationships among syncretism, flexibility and exactness, variables of the Gestalt Completion Test (GCT) and susceptibility to subliminal stimulation.
Subjects were administered a test for reproduction, 5 tests of syncretism and flexibility, a card-index cabinet (CIC) task, and an interview. They were also presented with 2 sets of GCT pictures and with 5 nouns which were exposed 30% below their awareness threshold.
The results indicate that there are two cognitive styles, "reproducing literally," and "making additions,". The former characterizing exact subjects, the latter syncretizing and flexible subjects.
The results suggest that the combination of syncretism and flexibility results in creativity. Syncretizing-flexible subjects tended to use original methods in the CIC task and to be engaged in "creative work." Further, they tended to give original responses to the GCT.
The syncretism combined with flexibility, choice of a creative occupation, originality shown in the CIC task, and the use of additions are further connected with susceptibility to subliminal stimulation.
Jennings, L.B. & George, S.G. (1975). Perceptual vigilance and defense revisited: Evidence against Blum's psychoanalytic theory of subliminal perception. Occidental College. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 41 (3), pp 723-729.
G.S. Blum's interpretation of psychoanalytic theory leads him to predict that subjects will defend against a threatening stimulus which is just below a recognition threshold and be vigilant toward the same stimulus when it is farther below the same threshold.
In this study, Luther Jennings and Stephen George presented the subjects with the same 4 Blacky pictures, at the same speed and illumination, and using the same procedure as Blum.
The results obtained offer no support for the theory of perceptual vigilance or defense.
The authors discuss the weaknesses inherent in Blum's theory and the supporting methodology.
Johnson, H. & Erikson, C.W. (1961). Preconscious prescription. A re-examination of the Poetzl phenomenon. Journal of Abnormal Social Psychology, 62.
Jones, B. & Sollner, R. (1982). Recognition memory for dichotically presented word pairs in right and left handed males. Cortex, 18 (3)
Jus, A. & Jus, K. (1967). Neurophysiologic studies of the "unconscious" (thresholds of perception and elements of the "unconscious" in the production of conditioned reflexes. Zh Nevropatol Psikhiatr, 67 (12), pp 1809-1815. ISSN: DY9Y-000, Language: RUSSIAN.
Kaley, H.W. (1970). The effects of subliminal stimuli and drive on verbal responses and dreams. New York University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 31 (4-B), p. 2284.
Kaplan, R.B. (1976). The symbiotic fantasy as a therapeutic agent: An experimental comparison of the effects of three symbiotic elements on manifest pathology in schizophrenics. New York University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 37 (3-B), pp 1437-1438.
Kaplan, R., Thornton, P. & Silverman, L. (1985). Further data on the effects of subliminal symbiotic stimulation on schizophrenics. Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease, 173 (11), pp 658-666. ISSN: 0022-3018.
Rosalind Kaplan, Patricia Thornton and Lloyd Silverman examined the effects of activating unconscious symbiotic fantasies in schizophrenic males.
The subjects were divided into four groups and assessed for pathological thinking, pathological non-verbal behavior and self-esteem before and after exposure to experimental and control subliminal stimuli.
The control stimulus for all groups was the message "People are walking".
Each group was divided into two, with one half of each group being exposed to verbal subliminal stimuli only and the other half to verbal plus congruent picture subliminal stimuli.
The experimental messages were; a) "Mommy and I are one", b) "Mommy is always with me", c) "Mommy feeds me well", and d) "I cannot hurt Mommy".
The "Mommy and I are one" message was the only one to produce adaptive behavior, and did so on all three dependent variables.
The results support the supposition that it is specifically symbiosis-related gratifications that are ameliorative for schizophrenics.
Kaser, V.A. (1986). The effects of an auditory subliminal message upon the production of images and dreams. Atascadero State Hospital, Central Program Services, CA. Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease, 174 (7), pp 397-407. ISSN: 0022-3018.
Vaughn Kaser conducted this study in order to investigate the effect that an auditory subliminal message, produced by speeding up the rate at which it was recorded, would have on the imagery and dreams of a group of normal subjects.
The auditory subliminal message was produced by speeding up a message that was sung until it could not be consciously understood.
This message was mixed with a normal music recording and played to the subjects in the experimental group.
The control group heard the normal music recording without the subliminal message.
Both groups were asked to produce a pretest drawing before the tapes were played, an imagery drawing immediately after the tapes were played, and a dream drawing of any dreams they might have that night.
A statistical analysis of blind ratings given to all the drawings by 2 art therapists indicated a significant difference between the dream drawings and the imagery drawings of the experimental and the control group.
When the drawings were examined, the effect of the subliminal message could be seen.
The results show that the auditory subliminal message did have an effect upon the imagery and dreams of the subjects in the experimental group.
The findings suggest that the unconscious/preconscious mind is able to perceive a recorded verbal message that cannot be consciously understood at the high rate of speed at which it was recorded.
Katz, R.J. (1973). Subliminal perception and the creative preconscious. Dissertation Abstracts International, 34 (4-B), p. 1751.
Robert Katz investigated the relationship between subliminal perception and the creativity of highly creative and emotionally constricted subjects.
The subjects were divided into highly creative and emotionally constricted groups on the basis of card VI, VIII and IX of the Rorschach test.
A subliminal slide of a "pink tree" was presented to the experimental groups, while the control group were exposed to a blank slide.
All three groups were then asked to create a story and to describe the physical environment in which their stories took place.
The responses were scored for the presence of literal reproductions of the subliminal stimulus and for responses conceptually related to the stimulus.
Two hypotheses were put forward; 1) the creative group would produce a significantly greater number of both literal reproductions of the subliminal stimulus and responses conceptually related to the stimulus, and 2) the increase in the degree of reality relatedness demanded by the structured condition would facilitate the production of literal reproductions in the creative group by reducing the degree to which the drive organization was involved in the formation of their creation.
The results clearly demonstrated that the creative group was superior to the constricted group in the ability to make use of preconscious material by incorporating either conceptually related responses or literal reproductions of the experimental stimulus into their subsequent productions.
The structured condition failed to facilitate the production of literal reproductions.
Kaye, M.M. (1975). The therapeutic value of three merging stimuli for male schizophrenics. Yeshiva University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 36 (3-B), pp 1438-1439.
Melvin Kaye examined the therapeutic value of the subliminal presentation of verbal messages, which were designed to arouse fantasies of merging oneself with another, on hospitalized schizophrenics.
Keithler, M.A. (1981). The influence of the transcendental meditation program and personality variables on auditory thresholds and cardio-respiratory responding. Doctoral Dissertation, Washington University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 42 (04-B), p. 1662.
Mary Anne Keithler conducted this study in order to determine the influence of the transcendental meditation program and personality variables on auditory thresholds and cardio-respiratory responding.
Many studies have shown that the Transcendental Meditation (TM) program improves perceptual ability, supposedly because regular practice of the TM technique improves the ability to concentrate and expands the level of conscious awareness.
Clements and Millstein (1977) found enhanced auditory thresholds (using a von Bekesy audiometer) in a small sample of female sidhas (practitioners of the TM Sidhi program) who had reported especially good experiences with the Sidhi technique for enhancing hearing ability.
The present study was designed to determine if a larger sample of Sidhas (ones not specially selected on the basis of their experiences) and a group of non-Sidha TM practitioners would show lower auditory thresholds than a group of non-TM practitioners.
The influence of response bias, personality, and central versus peripheral effects on auditory thresholds were addressed.
To assess motivational influences, cardiac and respiratory activity were measured and the effect of information processing requirements on physiological activity examined.
The subjects were divided into three groups (Sidhas, TM only and control).
Three auditory threshold tests were given, two to determine peripheral hearing ability, the method of limits (a bias-confounded measure), a forced choice absolute threshold test (a bias-free measure) to determine central discriminative ability.
For all tests, a one second 500 Hz tone was delivered binaurally through earphones.
Cardiac respiratory activity was measured during the tests and afterwards subjects were asked to fill out a personality questionnaire (the EPQ) and a rating scale concerning reactions to the session.
There was no significant differences found between groups for the two forced choice threshold tests.
The method of limits, however, showed that the Sidhas had significantly lower thresholds than the control subjects, implying a liberal response bias for the TM subjects and a conservative one for the control subjects. This may be related to greater familiarity with preconscious levels of the mind (where subliminal perception may take place) for the TM subjects.
This result suggests that the issue of response bias needs to be considered with specially selected Sidhas before Clements and Millstein's finding can be accepted.
Little relationship was found between personality variables and threshold measures, or between personality and TM.
The point of maximal cardia deceleration associated with the period of auditory stimulation within a trial was found to be logically related to the information processing demands of the tasks. This confirms the theory that cardiac acceleration (after a period of deceleration associated with the intake of sensory information) is associated with decision making and task completion.
Cardiac deceleration associated with auditory stimulation was not found to be greater at lower intensities, although respiratory reduction was.
Kelly, J.S. (1979). Subliminal embeds in print advertising: A challenge to advertising ethics. Journal of Advertising, 8 (3), pp 20-24. ISSN: 0091-3367.
J. Steven Kelly discusses the use of subliminal embeds in advertising.
In spite of an increase in public awareness, due to various news media and consumer publications, the two books by Wilson Bryan Key and Vance Packard's Hidden Persuaders, a rebuttal from the advertising community regar ding this activity has been nonexistent.
The implication behind the use of subliminal embeds in advertising is that such methods invade the consumers' subconscious and intrude on their purchase decision.
In a study of college students, it was found that subliminal embeds in advertisements did not produce significantly more recall of brands or illustrations than did regular ads.
Kemp-Wheeler, S.M. & Hill, A.B. (1987). Anxiety response to subliminal experience of mild stress. British Journal of Psychology, 78 (pt 3), pp 365-374.
Kennedy, R.S. (1971). A comparison of performance on visual and auditory monitoring tasks. Human Factors, 13 (2), pp 93-97. ISSN: 0018-7208.
Key, W.B. (1973). Subliminal Seduction. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall
Wilson Bryan Key describes how advertisers use visual subliminals to sell product.
Key, W.B. (1976). Media Sexploitation. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall
Wilson Bryan Key discusses further ways in which the media users the consumers fantasies, fears and intimate habits in order to manipulate buying behavior.
Key, W.B. (1980). Clam Plate Orgy. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Wilson Bryan Key shows how advertisers use sex as the ultimate subliminal weapon to persuade the consumer to buy their products.
Kihlstrom, J.F. (1987). The cognitive unconscious. University of Arizona. Science, 237, pp 1445-1452.
John Kihlstrom discusses the unconscious, preconscious and subconscious.
Cognitive research in psychology reveals the impact of nonconscious mental structures and processes on the individual's conscious experience, thought and action.
Research on perceptual-cognitive and motoric skills indicates that they are automized through experience, and thus rendered unconscious.
In addition, research on subliminal perception, implicit memory and hypnosis indicates that events can affect mental functions even though they cannot be consciously perceived or remembered.
These findings suggest a tripartite division of the cognitive unconscious into truly unconscious mental processes operating on knowledge structures that may themselves be preconscious or subconscious.
Kilbourne, W.E., Painton, S. & Ridley, D. (1985). The effect of sexual embedding on responses to magazine advertisements. Sam Houston State University. Journal of Advertising, 14 (2), pp 48-55. ISSN: 0091-3367.
William Kilbourne, Scott Painton and Danny Ridley conducted two empirical studies to assess the effectiveness of sexual embedding in advertising.
In Study 1 the subjects viewed and evaluated 2 advertisements (ads) with embeds or 2 matched ads without embeds.
The results indicated that embedding was effective in raising attitudinal evaluations of a liquor ad but not a cigarette ad.
In Study 2, galvanic skin response (GSR) measurements were taken on the subjects while they viewed both versions (with and without embeds) of 2 ads.
The results indicated that embedding was effective in increasing GSR measurements for the versions of the ads with embeds.
The results of both studies suggest that the view of sexual embeds in magazine advertisements influences viewers' evaluation of the ads.
Kimura, D. (1961). Cerebral dominance and the perception of verbal stimuli. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 15.
Kirkwood, B.J. (1987). Subliminal control of behavior: myth or miracle? Department of Psychology, University of Auckland. New Zealand Medical Journal, 100 (817), pp 69-70. ISSN: 0028-8446.
Klaine, J. (1980, July). Subliminal world. Peterson's Photographic Magazine, 9 (8), p. 45.
Klatz, R.M. (1986, July 18). Behavioral studies show subliminal tapes aid smokers, athletes. Lake Forest News.
Klatz, R.M. (1987, Spring). Subliminal and psychological training for maximum human performance. National Health and Medical Trends, pp 14-18.
Kleespies, P. & Wiener, M. (1972). The "orienting reflex" as an input indicator in "subliminal" perception. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 35 (1), pp 103-110.
Klein G.S. & Holt, R.R. (1960). Problems and issues in current studies of subliminal activation. In Festschrift for Gardner Murphy. Eds. J.G. Peatman and E.L. Hartley. New York: Harper and Rowe.
Klein G.S., Spence, D.P. & Gourevitch, S. (1958). Cognition without awareness: Subliminal influences upon conscious thought. Journal of Abnormal Social Psychology, 54, pp 167-176.
Klein, S. & Moricz, E. (1969). A study of the effect of threshold stimuli. Magyar Pszichologiai Szemle, 26 (2), pp 198-206.
Sandor Klein and Eva Moricz found that a subliminal stimulus inserted into a 16-mm filmstrip was more frequently perceived by males than by females.
Kleinbrook, W.L. (1985). Pastoral considerations regarding the use of subliminal psychodynamic activation. Drew University Dissertation Abstracts International, 45 (8-A), p. 2555. ISSN: 0419-4209.
Koizumi, K., Ishikawa, T. & Brooks, C.M. (1973). The existence of facilitatory axon collaterals in neurosecretory cells of the hypothalamus. Brain Research, 63, pp 408-413. ISSN: 0006-8993.
Kolers, P.A. (1972). Subliminal stimulation in simple and complex cognitive processes. New York University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 33 (3-B), p. 1269.
Kostandov, E.A. (1967). The effect of changes in the functional state of the cortex and activating systems of the brain stem on detection of weak auditory signals. Zh. Vyssh. Nerv. Deiat, 17 (4), pp 634-642. ISSN: DYAS-0000. Language: RUSSIAN.
Kostandov, E.A. (1968). The effect of unrecognized emotional verbal stimuli. Zh. Vyssh. Nerv. Deiat., 18 (3), pp 371-380. ISSN: DYAS-0000. Language: RUSSIAN.
Kostandov, E.A. (1969). The effect of emotional excitation on auditory threshold and subliminal reactions. Zh. Vyssh. Nerv. Deiat., 19 (3), pp 462-70. ISSN: DYAS-0000. Language: RUSSIAN.
Kostandov, E.A. (1970). Perception and subliminal reactions to unrecognized stimuli. Zh. Vyssh. Nerv. Deiat., 20 (2), pp 441-449. ISSN: DYAS-0000. Language: RUSSIAN.
Kostandov, E.A. (1971). Evoked potentials of the human cerebral cortex to recognized and unrecognized auditory signals. Neirofiziologiia, 3 (2), pp 115-22. Language: RUSSIAN.
Kostandov, E.A. (1973). The effect of negative emotions on perception. Central Scientific Research Inst. of Legal Psychiatry, Moscow, USSR. Voprosy Psikhologii, 19 (6), pp 60-72. Language: RUSSIAN.
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of emotional content of words on their recognition thresholds.
The subjects were all mentally disturbed because of severe conflicts experienced in the life situation.
Neutral and emotional words were presented to subjects while their EEG and GSR were recorded.
The emotional words used were pertinent to subject's particular conflict.
The experiment was run under 3 conditions: before, during and after the injection of anticholingeric agent.
The results, as recorded by the GSR and EEG, showed that there was a higher verbal recognition thresholds for the emotional words, along with subliminal recognition.
The emotional words produced an increase in amplitude and a decrease in the latency in the late positive component of CEP from the occipital region of the brain.It is conjectured that this was caused by nonspecific afferent signals from the limbic system.
The possible mechanism whereby the limbic system may change recognition thresholds of emotional words is discussed.
Kostandov, E.A. (1977). Cortical evoked potentials to emotional words (supraliminal and subliminal). Serbsky Central Research Inst. of Forensic Psychiatry, Moscow, USSR. Activitas Nervosa Superior, 19 (4), pp 301-302. ISSN: 0001-7604.
Kostandov, E.A. (1985). Currents significance of the work of G.C. Gershuni on subsensory reactions. Zh. Vyssh. Nerv. Deiat., 36 (6), pp 1014-1021. ISSN: 0044-4677.
Kostandov, E.A. & Arzumanov, YuL. (1978). Conditioned reflex mechanism of unconscious decision making. Zh. Vyssh. Nerv. Deiat, 28 (3), pp 542-548.
Kostandov, E.A. & Arzumanov, YuL. (1986). The influence of subliminal emotional words on functional hemispheric asymmetry. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 4 (2), pp 143-147.
The aim of this study was to examine the interhemispheric differences in the process of perception of subliminal verbal stimuli, by recording the P300 component of the evoked potential over both hemispheres.
Neutral and emotional words were presented subliminally, at random, to the left or right visual fields.
The results showed that, in response to an unrecognized emotional word, the amplitude of P300 wave increased diffusely over both hemispheres as compared to that of the neutral word, with no change in interhemispheric differences.
The interhemispheric difference did change considerably in the presence of an "unaccountable" emotion caused by a subliminal word. This suggests a unilateral activation of the right hemisphere and a predominant role of this hemisphere in the cortical organization of the unconscious function "unaccountable" emotion.
Kostandov, E., Arzumanov, J., Vazhnova, T., Reshchikova, T. & Shostakovich, G. (1980). Conditional mechanisms of decision making. Pavlovs Journal of Biological Science, 15 (4), pp 142-150.
Kostandov, E.A. & D'iachkoya, G.I. (1971). Evoked potentials of the human cerebral cortex to recognized and unrecognized auditory signals. Neirofiziologiia (USSR), 3 (2), pp 115-122. ISSN: 0028-2561.
Koufopoulos, R.M. (1987). A study of introjective depression using the subliminal psychodynamic activation method. Dissertation Abstracts International, 48 (3-B), p. 880.
Koulack, D. & Goodenough, D.R. (1976). Dream recall and dream recall failure. An arousal-retrieval model. University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada. Psychological Bulletin, 83 (5), pp 975-984.
Koulack, D. & Goodenough, D.R. (1977). A model for dream-recall on wakening: A proposal to account for memory faults in the recall of dreams. University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada. Annales Medica-Psychologiques, 1 (1), pp 35-42. ISSN: 00034487. Language: FRENCH.
In this article David Koulack and Donald Goodenough propose an arousal/retrieval model to account for difficulties in sleep learning and dream recall.
The model is based on two-stage memory theory, which assumes that information processing in a short-term memory state facilities subsequent retrieval from long-term memory storage.
The authors propose that the effectiveness of processing of target materials is impaired during sleep.
Dreams and information contained in stimulus presentations to a sleeping person very likely can only be retrieved if an awakening occurs during the life of the short term memory trance.
The authors further propose that experiences occurring during or shortly after awakening compete with the target material for space in the limited-capacity processing system, with the most salient of the set favored in the competition.
Interference and repression effects are assumed as additional factors in retrieval from long-term storage.
Kramer, J. (1986). Psychic Guide. In Subliminal Persuasion, Becoming All You Can Be, pp. 33-36.
Kreitler, H. & Kreitler, S. (1973). Subliminal Perception and extrasensory perception. Tel Aviv University, Israel. Journal of Parapsychology, 37 (3), pp 163-188.
Hans Kreitler and Shulamith Kreitler conducted this study in order to investigate; a) which conditions facilitate ESP, eg. i) absence of other stimuli, ii) presence of weak stimuli conveying the same information as ESP, or iii) the presence of weak stimuli contradicting ESP, and b) the effectiveness of ESP when the sender is merely thinking about the target he is trying to "send" or is actively trying to transmit it.
The results indicated that ESP messages are most effective when they contradicted information conveyed by subliminal stimuli and were communicated by a transmitting sender.
Kreitler, H. & Kreitler, S. (1974). Optimization of experimental ESP results. Harvard University, Carpenter Center. Journal of Parapsychology, 38 (4), pp 383-392.
In this article, Hans Kreitler and Shulamith Kreitler stated that the comparative analysis of 4 ESP experiments showed that ESP enhanced neither supraliminal or subliminal inputs, nor did it strengthen a subject's dominant response tendencies.
ESP effects were most manifest when the contents of the ESP message differed from that of concomitant external and internal stimuli.
From the results, it was concluded that the external and internal stimuli constitute the noise background against which the ESP signal has to be detected.
The authors suggest that, in order to strengthen the detectability of ESP signals and thus increase the possibility of successful ESP experimentation, there should also be experimental control of response bias and guessing habits, in addition to the already traditional reduction of external stimulation in ESP experiments.
In particular messages should be selected which differ considerably in their contents from the contents of whatever external and internal stimuli may be occurring at the same time.
Krishna, S.R. (1985). A review of the PA India conference. Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, India. Journal of Parapsychology, 49 (3), pp 249-255. ISSN: 0022-3387.
In this article, Shanti Krishna discusses research in parapsychology, including Western and Eastern psi perspectives.
Included in the discussion is ESP and subliminal perception.
Kruse, P. Some suggestions about suggestion and hypnosis: a radical constructivist view. In Suggestion and Suggestibility, Theory and Research by Gheorghiu, V.A., Netter, P., Eysenck, H.J. & Rosenthal (Eds). Springer Verlag, Berlin.
Peter Kruse makes the case of the under-researched and often ignored power of suggestive influences in all forms of communication and every day experience.
Kruse applies the reality criteria and offers epistomological consideration for the value of suggestion in research, theory and therapy.
Kruse, P. & Stadler, M. (1990). Stability and instability in cognitive systems: multistability, suggestion, and psychomotor interaction. Department of Psychology, University of Bremen. Springer Series in Synergetics, 45, pp 201-215.
The focus of this paper is on approaching brain/mind in the interaction between stability/instability associating mental events with neural events.
The authors summarize presented facts and ideas applying a self-organization theory to cognitive phenomena in two main areas; 1) cognitive instability, and 2) instability in cognitive systems.
Kunzendorf, R.G., Lacourse, P. & Lynch, B. (1986-1987). Hypnotic hypermnesia for subliminally encoded stimuli: state dependent memory for "unmonitored" sensations. Imagination, Cognition & Personality, 6 (4), pp 365-377.
Kwawer, J.S. (1972). An experimental study of psychoanalytic theories of overt male homosexuality. New York University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 32 (10-B), p. 6053.
Jay Solomon Kwawer designed this study in order to provide an experimental evaluation of two aspects of the psychoanalytic theory of overt male homosexuality; a) that homosexual symptoms are related to oedipal fantasies, and b) homosexuality is related to a wish for a symbiotic attachment to mother.
The subjects were shown a tachistopic presentation of verbal and pictorial stimuli at a subliminal level.
The three conditions used were; i) a subliminal stimulus designed to trigger incestuous fantasies about mother, ii) a subliminal stimulus designed to trigger a fantasy of symbiotic attachment to mother. iii) a neutral control stimulus.
The dependent variables were designed to assess changes in homosexual manifestations as a function of subliminal presentation of the experimental stimuli.
A difference which could be significant was found for the incest condition on a measure directly tapping the degree of homosexual attraction to other men.
At the level of intensity and exposure used, the subjects were unable to discriminate between stimuli on a better than chance basis.
Kwawer, J.S. (1977). Male homosexual psychodynamics and the Rorschach test. Journal for Personal Assessment, 41 (1), pp 10-18. ISSN: 0022-3891.
Jay Soloman Kwawer discusses the contradictory findings regarding Wheeler's Rorschach content signs of male homosexuality.
It is suggested that the negative findings may have resulted from a focus on homosexual populations characterized by minimal arousal of underlying unconscious conflicts.
A hypothesis was put forward, which stated that activating these unconscious psychodynamics would enhance the discriminative power of the Wheeler signs.
An earlier study was reviewed where Inkblot protocols obtained from matched groups of homosexuals and heterosexuals under two experimental conditions involving subliminal exposure of either; 1) an incest-related, or 2) a neutral control stimulus
were scored for Wheeler signs.
It was found that the incest condition brought about a significantly greater incidence of the signs in homosexual records only. This suggests that the intensification of unconscious incest wishes stimulates homosexual reactions, consonant with psychoanalytic formulation.
Lander, E. (1981, February). In through the out door. Omni, 3 (6), p. 44.
Lasaga, J.I. & Lasaga, A.M. (1973). Sleep learning and progressive blurring of perception during sleep. Crownsville State Hospital, MD. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 37 (1), pp 51-62. ISSN: 0031-5125.
Jose and Agueda Lasaga presented verbal stimuli (numbers) to the subjects during different stages of sleep.
Fifteen seconds after each presentation the subjects were awakened and asked if they had heard anything. If not, they were given a multiple-choice test that included the stimulus number and three other numbers.
The results show that; a) even during Stages 3 and 4 some perception of verbal stimuli is possible during sleep. b) there is a progressive burring of perception from State 1 and REM to Stages 3 and 4, and; c) some forms of learning are possible during sleep deeper than the drowsy state, but perceptual distortions make the assimilation of complex verbal materials unlikely.
It was also noticed that most verbal stimulations tended to produce a lightening of sleep as measured by the EEG.
Based on the response of some of the subjects, there is a possibility of subliminal perception during sleep.
Lazarus, R.S. & McCleary, R.A. (1951). Automatic discrimination without awareness: A study of subception. Psychological Review, 58, pp 113-122.
Leclerc, C. & Freibergs, V. (1971). The influence of perceptual and symbolic subliminal stimuli on concept formation. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 25 (4), pp 292-301. Language: FRENCH.
Claude Leclerc and Vaira Freibergs examined the influence of perceptual and symbolic subliminal stimuli on concept formation.
The concept to be learned was represented by geometric figures.
Before each concept was put forward, the subjects were presented with a backward masked subliminal stimulus. The stimulus indicated either the correct or incorrect solution.
The results show that only the symbolic subliminal stimuli were effective in influencing the learning of a concept, and this particularly in the case where the correct solution was indicated.
It was concluded that the effect of a subliminal stimulus depends on the degree of correspondence between the level of complexity of the stimulus and that of the task.
Ledford, B.R. (1978, August). The effects of thematic content of rheostatically controlled visual subliminals upon the receiving level of the affective domain of learners. Commerce, Texas: East Texas State University, Center for Educational Media and Technology.
Bruce Ledford conducted this study in order to determine the effects of rheostatically controlled visual subliminals on the affective interrelations of a learning task of subjects within a classroom setting.
The subjects were divided into four groups, and were unknowingly exposed to a rheostatically projected subliminal message for 30 minutes during otherwise normal classroom procedures.
The subjects were then asked to complete a questionnaire revealing their consciousness of, willingness to learn about, and desire to elicit selective attention to faces shown on six slides, one being the subliminally presented task.
Of the stimuli content tested, a drive related sex stimulus was the most significant in affective influence.
Ledford, B.R. & Ledford, S.Y. (1985). The effects of preconscious cues upon the automatic activation of self-esteem selected middle school students. Requirement for Project 1246. Tucson Unified School District.
Bruce and Suzanne Ledford performed this study in order to investigate whether self-esteem could be affected by the presentation of a subliminal stimulus through the medium of a specially prepared paper.
The study also examined whether or not there is any statistical difference between the effects on self-esteem of a subliminal stimulus on under- (Target Learners) and average- achieving (Mainstream Learners) students.
All groups were given the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES).
The experimental group's test was printed on paper that contained the subliminal visual image "I love you" and the symbol of a Valentine heart.
The control group's test was administered on untreated paper.
The results showed that; a) both Mainstream and Target experimental groups showed enhancement of self-esteem, and b) subjects who were identified as under-achievers and who had problems in socialization appeared to benefit slightly more from the techniques than did Mainstream subjects.
Lee, I. & Tyrer, P. (1980). Response of chronic agoraphobics to subliminal and supraliminal phobic motion pictures. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 168 (1), pp 34-40. ISSN: 0022-3018.
This study was performed in order to investigate the responses of agoraphobics to repeated presentations of a phobic motion picture.
The subjects were divided into three groups;
a) group 1 were shown the film supraliminally, b) group 2 were shown the film subliminally, and c) group 3 formed the control group.
Subjective feelings were assessed with visual analogue scales, and three physiological measures, heart rate, skin conductance, and respiratory rate, were recorded.
A previous study had shown that both subliminal and supraliminal presentations produced significant improvements in phobic fear and avoidance.
This study found that the subliminal group found the procedure much less stressful than the subliminal group.
There was no consistent pattern in the physiological changes during the experiment, and the changes appeared to be independent of clinical response.
The results showed that repeated exposure to subliminal phobic motion pictures is not anxiety provoking to agoraphobic patients and so may be appropriate therapy for those unable to tolerate other forms of treatment.
Lee, I. & Tyrer, P. (1981). Self report and physiological response to subliminal and supraliminal motion pictures. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 169 (5), p. 294.
Lee, I & Tyrer, P. & Horn, S. (1983). A comparison of subliminal, supraliminal and faded phobic cine-films in the treatment of agoraphobia. Electronic Facilities Design LTD, Reading, England. British Journal of Psychiatry, 143, pp 356-361. ISSN: 0007-1250.
Ian Lee, Peter Tyrer and Sandra Horn studied four groups of agoraphobics, who were treated by repeated exposure to films at twice weekly intervals for 3 weeks.
Three of the groups saw the same film, comprising a range of agoraphobic scenes, and a control group saw a potter working on his wheel.
The experimental groups saw the phobic film; 1) at an illumination level below the visual threshold (subliminal group), 2) under normal conditions (supraliminal group), and 3) through a graduated exposure from subliminal to supraliminal viewing levels as the study proceeded (faded group).
The results showed that the faded group gave significantly greater improvement than the control and supraliminal groups, and this improvement was maintained over 12 weeks.
Leiter, E. (1974). A study of the effects of subliminal activation of merging fantasies in the differentiated and non-differentiated schizophrenics. New York University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 34 (8-B), pp 4022-4023.
Leiter, E. (1982). The effects of subliminal activation of aggressive and merging fantasies in differentiated and non-differentiated schizophrenics. The Bronx Psychiatric Center, New York, NY. Lund University. Psychological Research Bulletin, 22 (7), 21 pages. ISSN: 0348-3673.
Eli Leiter carried out this study in order to determine the effects of the subliminal activation of aggressive and merging fantasies in differentiated and non-differentiated schizophrenics.
The subjects were assessed on several measures of differentiation and were then exposed to 3 conditions in a subliminal psychodynamic activation experiment.
The conditions were designed to; 1) activate aggressive fantasies, 2) activate symbiotic fantasies, and 3) act as a neutral control condition.
The results showed that the aggressive condition intensified pathology, whereas the symbiotic condition reduced pathology for the more-differentiated schizophrenics but increased it for the less-differentiated subjects.
The Adjective Rating Scale, a measure of sense of separateness, was used to obtain the criterion score for degree of differentiation.
Other more-general measures of differentiation from the rod-and-frame test, Embedded Figures Test, Rorschach and the Figure Drawing Test did not predict performance after the symbiotic condition.
Lehmann, A.G. & Busnel, R.G. (1979). Reduction of swimming time in mice through interaction of infrasound and alcohol. Lab de Physiologie Acoustique, Jouy-en-Josas, France. Psychopharmacology, 65 (1), pp 79-84. ISSN: 0033-3158.
Lehmann and Busnel studied the effects of noise, alcohol and the combination of the two on muscular fatigue during swimming in Swiss albino RB-3 GFF +/+ and the GFF dn/dn mice. The aim of the experiment was to investigate a possible interaction between the two stresses.
Muscular fatigue was measured by latency to submersion during a forced-swimming test.
The subjects were exposed to acoustic stimuli of fixed frequency and intensity for two hours preceding the test.
Ethanol was administered orally for 30 minutes to 3.5 hours prior to testing.
The alcohol doses and sound intensities were subliminal when administered separately.
While no significant interaction occurred between alcohol and audible sound, the interaction between alcohol and infrasound was highly significant, indicating that their joint effects were more than merely additive.
The blood alcohol measurements indicated that these interactive effects were prolonged for more than two hours after elimination of alcohol from the blood.
The effects are similar in genetically deaf and hearing mice, which implicates the involvement of nonauditory pathways.
Lenz, S. (1989). The effects of subliminal auditory stimuli on academic learning and motor skills performance among police recruits. California School of Professional Psychology, Los Angeles, CA. Unpublished doctoral dissertation.
Suzanne Lenz performed this study in order to explore the effects of subliminal auditory tapes in a structured learning setting, focusing on both motor and verbal learning.
The subjects were divided into three groups; a) group one listened to music tapes with embedded subliminal messages relating to learning law and enhancing marksmanship, b) group 2 listened to music tapes without subliminal messages, and c) group three underwent no treatment.
The experimental groups were exposed to the music tapes during a regular class on law instruction.
All the subjects were given both pre- and post-tests in law and marksmanship.
The results showed that neither music alone nor music with subliminal messages played during law instruction affected the cognitive (i.e., law) learning of the recruits, or improved motor skills (i.e., marksmanship) performance.
Although this study was well structured in terms of design and protocol, and the results were accurately reported, amajor flaw can be found in the technical design of the tapes. The subliminal messages were recorded at 40-50 db below the sound of the music, and as such are too low to be perceived.
Levenson, R.W. (1983). Personality research and psychophysiology: General considerations. Indiana University, Bloomington. Journal of Research in Personality, 17 (1), pp 1-21. ISSN: 0092-6566.
Robert Levenson presents a general discussion of psychophysiological methods in relationship to personality research for the investigator without an extensive knowledge of psychophysiology.
Included in this article is a section on the advantages inherent in the use of psychophysiological measures (e.g., continuous measurement, sensitivity to subliminal responses).
Levy, M.A. (1985). The intimacy motive: A variable to predict responsiveness to subliminal symbiotic stimulation. Adelphi University, Institute of Advanced Psychological Studies. Dissertation Abstracts International, 45 (7-B), p. 2314. ISSN: 0419-4209.
Previous studies have shown that the presentation of subliminal symbiotic messages, via the "subliminal psychodynamic activation" method developed by Silverman (1982), can have a beneficial impact on various aspects of human functioning and a wide range of behaviors.
The aim of this study was to determine whether the personality characteristic, intimacy motivation, could predict responsiveness to subliminal symbiotic stimuli.
Two unrelated dependent variables were used; 1) a time estimation task, where an overestimation of the duration of a tone (50 seconds) was predicted for the experimental subjects, who were presented with the symbiotic message, "Mommy and I are one", while no overestimation was predicted for the control group, who were shown the neutral message, "People are walking". 2) a state-anxiety measure, where it was hypothesized that the experimental subjects would demonstrate lower levels of anxiety than the control subjects.
It was predicted from an exploratory hypothesis that experimental subjects who had high intimacy motivation scores would be the most responsive to the symbiotic stimuli.
The results failed to support all three hypotheses, which suggests the possibility that no subliminal effects occurred whatsoever in the experiment.
Levy, S. (1984). The selling of the subliminal. Popular Computing, 3 (6), pp 70,75-78.
Steven Levy describes ExpandoVision, a computer controlled television device that flashes subliminal self-help messages on the television screen during routine viewing of regular programs.
The effectiveness and dangers of subliminal persuasion are discussed.
Lewis, A.J., Parker, J., DiLuigi, J., Datko, L.J. & Carlson, R.P. (1981-1982). Immunomodulation of delayed hypersensitivity to methylated bovine serum (MBSA) in mice using subliminal and normal sensitization procedures. Journal of Immunopharmacology, 3 (3-4), pp 289-307.
Lieberman, H.J. (1975). A study of the relationship between developmentally determined personality and associated thought styles and tachistoscopic exposure as reflected in conflict resolution. Pennsylvania State University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 35 (11-B), pp 5670-5671.
Previous research suggests that variations in stimulus visibility (from supraliminal to subliminal) parallels, in psychoanalytic terms, a conscious to unconscious continuum, and a developmental hierarchy of different personality and thought styles.
Three visibility levels were chosen for this study; supraliminal, perceptual defense (recognition threshold and subliminal.
The response to each development stage were investigated by studying how passive-aggressive conflicts were handled at different exposure levels.
Neutral, passive and aggressive words were used.
Personality adaptation was based on the ratio of passive and aggressive content scores on the Holtzman Inkblot technique.
The results indicate that passive-aggressive orientation helped determine how subjects perceived stimuli at all exposure levels.
Subliminal stimulus type influenced the direction of responses without distorting the personality adaptation and defense style modes of response.
When subliminal stimulation was presented before supraliminal stimuli, subliminal stimulation effects were potent enough to alter and disorganize personality adaptation and defensive style responses.
It was concluded that response processes varied with stimulus visibility.
The fact that subliminal stimulation before supraliminal exposure was more effective than subliminal stimulation after supraliminal exposure in activating and effecting response processes was attributed to the former being interpreted as more internal in origin, less controllable and therefore more-anxiety inducing than the latter.
Linehan, E.J. (1980). The effect of subliminal stimulation of symbiotic fantasies on college student self-disclosure in group counseling. St. John's University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 41 (01-A), p. 108.
Linehan, E.J. & O'Toole, J. (1982). Effect of subliminal stimulation of symbiotic fantasies on college student self-disclosure in group counseling. St. Clare's Hospital Community Mental Health Center, Industrial Employee Assistance Program, Denville, NJ. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 29 (2), pp 151-157. ISSN: 0022-0167.
Edward Linehan and James O'Toole studied subliminal symbiotic stimulation as a treatment aid in conjunction with counselor self-disclosures in group counseling.
The subjects were divided into three groups, with each group being further subdivided in an experimental and a control group.
Before each group counselling session, the experimentals received the subliminal message, "Mommy and I are one," and the controls received the neutral message, "People are walking."
In the counseling session that followed; a) group 1 were exposed to 8 counselor self-disclosures (CSDs), b) group 2 received 4 CSDs, and c) group 3 received zero CSDs.
The results showed that the experimental "Mommy" message produced more subject self-disclosures (SSDs) than the neutral message.
These results with the "Mommy" stimulus, together with previous findings, indicate that the subliminal stimulation of symbiotic fantasies can enhance the effectiveness of therapeutic procedures of various kinds.
Litwack, T.R., Wiedemann, C.F. & Yager, J. (1979). The fear of object loss, responsiveness to subliminal stimuli, and schizophrenic psychopathology. Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease, 167 (2), pp 79-90. ISSN: 0022-3018.
Thomas Litwack, Carl Wiedemann and Joan Yager examined the effects of object loss and responsiveness to subliminal stimuli on schizophrenic psychopathology.
The subjects were seen individually for 3 sessions in a balanced design.
In each session, following subliminal stimulation with a neutral stimulus, a baseline assessment of pathology was made.
In different sessions in counterbalanced order, each patient received 2 of 3 experimental (or "critical") stimuli; (a) a neutral control stimulus, (b) a message ("cannibal eats person") intended to activate aggressive ideation, and (c) a message ("I am losing mommy") intended to activate fantasies of object loss.
Each of these conditions was followed by an initial and later assessment of pathology, and finally by a measure of the patients' sense of differentiation from a mothering figure.
The results showed that; a) the subliminal aggressive message intensified pathology and aggressive ideation, especially for relatively undifferentiated and relatively non-defended patients' b) the subliminal stimulation of fantasies of objects loss also increased pathology, especially for non-defended patients , and also increased the patients sense of merging with mothering object, and c) the patients' response to subliminal stimuli, including presumably neutral ones, was a function of the conscious meaning (s) of such stimuli.
It was concluded that; 1) the threat of object loss (real or fantasied) may be one of the motivations supporting the development of pathology in schizophrenics, 2) the activation of fantasies of aggressive destruction can exacerbate schizophrenic pathology, perhaps by activating fantasies of object loss, and 3) future research with subliminal stimulation should consider carefully the differential responsiveness of subjects to the content of particular messages.
Lodl, C.M. (1981). The effects of subliminal stimuli of aggressive content upon the analytic/field-independent cognitive style. Marquette University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 41 (9-B), pp 3559-3560.
Lomangino, L.F. (1969). Depiction of subliminally and supraliminally presented aggressive stimuli and its effects on the cognitive functioning of schizophrenics. Dissertation Abstracts International, 30 (4-B), pp 1900-1901.
Lombard, J. (1979). Advertising. Elements: Translating theory into practice, 11 (1), pp 406.
Jim Lombard presents example of subliminal or indirect advertising in the mass media.
It is suggested that advertising analysis be part of the elementary curriculum so that children can become sensitized to such nonverbal influence on their behavior.
Lorenzo, G.J. (1985). Subliminal stimulation and psychopathologic diagnosis. University Autonoma de Madrid, Facultad de Psicologia, Spain. Psiquis Revista de Psiquiatria, Psicologia y Psicosomatica, 6 (1), pp 30-40. ISSN: 0210-8348. Language: SPANISH.
In this article, Jose Gonzalez Lorenzo contends, on the basis of data from several investigations, that external stimuli not in the subject's awareness may cause a response of overt behavior, disorders of thinking, affective orders, or other abnormalities.
It is suggested that unconscious psychopathology may be activated by a wide range of stimuli that are relevant to the diagnosis and therapy of the mentally ill.
Lorenzo, G.J. (1985). Influence of subliminal stimulation on perception. Revista de Psicologia General y Aplicada, 40 (5), pp 1019-1031.
Lozanov, G. (1971) Suggestology. Sophia: Nauki Izkustvi
Lozanov, G. (1978). Suggestology and Outlines of Suggestopedia. New York: Gordon and Breach.
Georgi Lozanov discusses how he used subliminal audio messages to enhance learning abilities in language and mathematics.
Lynn, R.L. (1987). Relaxation: low intensity (subliminal) phrases versus instructional set. Dissertation Abstracts International, 48 (3-B), p. 882.
Magri, M. (1979). Effects of sexual guilt upon affective responses to subliminal sexual stimuli. College of William and Mary. Dissertation Abstracts International, 40 (2-B), p. 926.
Michael Magri designed this study in order to investigate the effects of sexual guilt on the physiological and affective responses to the subliminal presentation of sexual words.
The subjects were given the Morsher Forced-Choice Guilt Inventory, and on the basis of the results, the top 27 % were assigned to the high sexual guilt group and the bottom 27% were assigned to the low sexual guilt group.
The subjects in these two groups were then randomly assigned to either subliminal sexual stimuli (treatment) condition, or the subliminal neutral (control) stimuli condition.
Both experimental condition entailed the presentation of ten subliminal words. In the treatment condition six words were neutral and four sexual in content. In the control condition all ten words were neutral.
The results showed no significant differences between the treatment and the control groups, but low sexual guilt subjects reported significantly higher levels of affective arousal than did high sexual guilt subjects.
Majdi, M. (1983). An audio system for producing a subliminal message. University of Louisville. Masters Abstracts, 22 (01), p. 28.
Maloney, J.C. (1983). Some psychoanalytic aspects of coronary prone behavior. Adelphi University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 43 (7-B), p. 2346. ISSN: 0419-4209.
Jeffrey Maloney designed this study to test the effects of tachistopically stimulating unconscious-compulsive fantasy on some correlates of coronary-prone behavior.
The stimulus, derived from Freud's theory that the obsessive-compulsive personality is organized around infantile defenses used to cope with the fantasies, drives, impulses and feelings associated with defecation, was the word and picture message "Shitting is OK".
This message follows the line of research in subliminal psychodynamic activation, which has shown that some "sanctioning" messages can reduce pathology and enhance adaptation.
It was hypothesized that the coronary-prone subjects have obsessive-compulsive personalities, and as such the stimulation of an anal fantasy with a sanctioning message would reduce aspects of their behavior pattern.
Changes in affective hostility, impatience, the need to achieve and the hostility in fantasy were measured following the presentation of critical and neutral stimuli.
No significant change was found in either between or within-subject scores.
The lack of findings suggest that the coronary prone subjects may not have obsessive-compulsive personalities, or that the message derived from the theory was not one which stimulated the fantasy in an effective way.
Mandel, K.H. (1970). Problems and initiation of behavior therapy with male homosexuals. Zeitschrift fur Psychotherapie und medizinische Psychologie, 20 (3), pp 115-125. Language: GERMAN.
This article discusses the problems of aversive conditioning of homosexual responses, and considers the literature on the various methods of behavioral therapy in male homosexuals.
Among the aversive methods developed to date, covert sensitization, as described by J.R. Cautela (1066) is the most acceptable.
The most important task in the treatment of homosexuals is establishing a stable heterosexual partner relationship.
To accomplish this, a precise analysis and elimination of avoidance responses along with cultivation of erotic-sexual reactions to specific female stimulations is necessary.
Visual stimulations play an important role in this process since it is through them that the chain of sexual interactions is elicited.
These problems have been previously neglected in behavioral therapy.
A difficult aspect in the treatment of homosexuals is the development of a feeling of love for the heterosexual partner which is free of subliminal anxiety and reaches beyond intensive heterosexual responses.
Manfield, D.C. (1987). Computer-assisted weight-loss: a subliminal and behavioral methodology for motivated females. Dissertation Abstracts International, 47 (9-B), p. 3943.
Marcel, A.J. (1983). Conscious and unconscious perception: An approach to the relations between phenomenal experience and perceptual processes. Cognitive Psychology, 15, pp 238-300.
Marcel, A.J. (1983). Conscious and unconscious perception: Experiments on visual masking and word recognition. Cognitive Psychology, 15 (2), pp 197-237. ISSN: 0010-0285.
Anthony Marcel presented five experiments in order to explore the relation of masking to consciousness and visual word processing.
Experiment 1 - a single word or blank field was followed by a pattern mask. The subjects then had to decide; a) if anything proceeded the mask?, b) to which of the two probe words was what preceded the mask more graphically?, and c) to which of the two probe words was it more similar semantically?
As word-mask stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) was reduced, the subjects reached chance performance on the detection, graphic, and semantic decisions in that order.
Experiment 2 - the subjects again had to choose which of the two words was more similar either graphically or semantically to a nondetectable masked word, but the forced-choice stimuli now covaried negatively on graphic and semantic similarity.
The subjects were now unable to choose selectively on each dimension, which suggests that their ability to choose in experiment 1 was passively rather than intentionally mediated.
Experiment 3 - the subjects had to make manual identification responses to color patches which were either accompanied or preceded by words masked to prevent awareness.
It was found that color congruent words facilitated reaction time, whereas color incongruent words delayed reaction time.
Experiment 4 - a lexical decision task was used where a trial consisted of the critical letter string following another not requiring a response. When both were words they were either semantically associated or not. The first letter string was either left unmasked, energy masked monoptically, or pattern masked dichoptically to prevent awareness.
The effect of association was equal in the unmasked and pattern masked cases, but absent in the energy masking.
Experiment 5 - repeating a word-plus-mask (where the SOA precluded detection) from 1 to 20 times; a) increased the association effect on subsequent lexical decisions, but had no effect on, b) detectability, or c) the semantic relatedness of forced guesses of the masked word.
It is proposed that central pattern masking has little effect on visual processing itself (while peripheral energy masking does), but affects the availability of records of the results of those processes to consciousness.
Perceptual processing itself is unconscious and automatically proceeds to all levels of analysis and redescription available to the perceiver.
Marconi-Manda, L.R. (1980). Performance optimization as a function of accessory auditory stimulation for hyperactive and non-hyperactive children. St. John's University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 41 (04-B), p. 1514.
Linda Marconi-Manda studied the differential effect of graduated levels of accessory auditory stimulation at the subliminal and supraliminal levels on the performance of hyperactive and normal children on an attention task.
Hyperactive children, who obtained scores of minimal brain dysfunction on specific psychological indices, and a control group, were further classified into high and low threshold groups on the basis of their absolute auditory thresholds.
The performance of each group on a video game, which required sustained concentration, was compared under six levels of white noise (-10 db, -15 db -20db, +10 db, +30 db and +50 db) and a no-noise level.
The results demonstrated that (a) there was a distinct subgroup of hyperactive children who were less sensitive to auditory stimulation i.e., they had significantly higher auditory thresholds than the high threshold normals, unlike the low threshold hyperactives and normals who did not differ significantly from each other, and (b) subliminal accessory auditory stimulation significantly enhanced the performance of the normal children but did not have a facilitatory arousal effect on the hyperactive children.
The results were interpreted in terms of the "under-arousability" proposal of the performance of hyperactive children.
The findings were offered as evidence to support a more complex etiology of hyperactivity - one involving other brain structures besides the reticular activating system, particularly those implicated in incentive and reward.
Advertising Age. (1966, September, 19). Subliminal cuts show "hot car" in new Toyota push. 37, pp 3, 126.
It was reported that Toyota used one-sixth of a second flashes of a race car in a television commercial similar to the technique used in the film "The Pawnbroker."
The report included the pictures of the imbedded images used to exploit the higher horsepower of the car.
Advertising Age, (1973, December 24). "Subliminal" ad flap raised, p. 21.
It was reported that subliminal advertising is being used in a 60 second spot for Husker-Do, a game marked by Premium Corporation of America.
The Federal Trade Commission was requested to ban use of the subliminal commercial the ad places on the one minute film.
Florida trial of TV addict goes on the air. Broadcasting, (October 3, 1977), pp 31-32.
A 15-year-old boy is being tried for first-degree murder and his attorney is pleading that the boy is insane due to "involuntary, subliminal TV intoxication."
Games Corporations play: Sponsor a sports event. Marketing Communications, (November 1978), pp 20-26.
Although sports can sell almost everything, sports endorsements are an expensive advertising approach.
Some firms have found that straight advertising reaches a saturation point, while subliminal advertising, through event sponsorship and tie-ins keeps on working.
Whether subliminal perception influences behavior is examined by J. Saegert of the University of Texas at San Antonio. Journal of Advertising Research, (February 1979), pp 55-57.
Although subliminal perception is an emotional issue, the technique has potential applications for advertising and marketing if it has a reliable effect.
The literature regarding research into subliminal perception is reviewed, with particular emphasis on the work by Silverman.
Saegert feels that Silverman presents "..... convincing evidence for the influence of behaviors as a results of subliminal stimulation".
Subliminal communication is said to be capable of guiding and controlling human behavior. Business & Society Review, p. 62-64.
Subliminal messages can be programmed to fit specific applications.
H.C. Becker of Behavioral Engineering Corp. claims that the system his firm puts out will reduce shoplifting.
The affirmations, recorded just below hearing range, are repeated between 2,000 and 9,000 times per hour.
Examples of places where subliminal messages can be used, are; medical and dental offices, banks, supermarkets, retail stores, real estate agencies and general offices.
Workers and store customers should be notified that a system is use.
Experiments in subliminal communication continue. Output (January, 1981), pp 36 & 38.
The basic principle of subliminal communication is that the brain can receive aural and visual stimuli without the person being consciously aware of it.
Subliminal stimuli can affect behavior without making the individual aware of what is happening.
As the subliminal stimuli can be transmitted over a public address system or by television, the experience of subliminal communication could be used indiscriminately on may people at once.
Two areas of controversy regarding the use of subliminal stimuli are; 1) a concern about the ethical implications of using a technique to influence individual's behavior when they are not aware of it, and 2) whether the technique is actually effective.
"Subliminal synergism" - harmonized color schemes between an ad and facing editorial copy - attracts advertisers to New Woman magazine. Folio: The Magazine for Magazine Management. (September 1982), pp 32 & 34.
Subliminal synergism is where dominant colors from a four color ad behind headline blocks appear on the facing editorial pages.
This technique is said to draw the reader's eye into the ad and back into the editorial content.
Although the technique cannot be guaranteed it is being actively promoted to the advertisers by New Woman magazine.
The synergy can only be implanted on certain editorial section pages, that carry a particular size headline.
Environmental Video has introduced a Subliminal Persuasion video cassette that superimposes low-level video messages on cassette tapes. Video News (July 22, 1983), pp 4 & 5.
The video cassette will help consumers lose weight, stop smoking or make other lifestyle changes.
Stimutech (E. Lansing, MI) launches Expando-Vision, a device that delivers subliminal messages via computer. Merchandising (December 1983), p. 42.
Using Expando-Vision, customers can now lose weight, stop smoking, control stress or improve their sexual confidence while watching TV.
The system works by flashing an extremely short message on the screen once every 2.5 minutes.
Examples of the messages used in the stress control program include, "I am calm", "I am tranquil" and "I see me at ease".
As the subconscious becomes imprinted with these messages, changes can be bought about in behavior.
Stimutech has introduced a device to change behavior by subliminal suggestion. Wall Street Journal, (September 30, 1983), p. 33.
The Expando-Vision box hooks into a TV set via a home computer, and works by flashing onto the screen, split-second images designed to help the viewer with weight loss, stress control, success motivation, sex. etc.
The company is not sure the device actually works, as prototype test results aren't in yet.
Pacific Bell's low-key approach to Olympic sponsorship. Public Relations Journal, (September 1984), pp 18-20.
Pacific Bell's corporate sponsorship of the Olympics achieved the results of a major ad campaign at far less cost.
The accumulative effect on reporters of many subtle news pieces, all united by theme and design gave the advertising campaign the effect of "wave" or "subliminal saturation".
By down-playing Pacific Bell and emphasizing the usefulness and popular tastes, the materials were in great demand.
Ads against wall in video background. Advertising Age, (February 28, 1985), p. 6.
Entertel is seeking advertisers to slip short messages into its ambient video.
For an ad to work in these videos it must blend into the story and convey its message without words.
The market for the videos could therefore be greatly increased by including subliminal advertising.
Company-Built retreats reflect firm's cultures and personalities. Wall Street Journal, (August 16, 1984), p. 27.
Firms who can afford to build their own training schools claim they are cheaper than resort hotels and better equipped to instill a sense of company culture.
The design of the centers is such that subliminal lessons are being taught about the corporate image and character.
Controversial "brainwashing" and self-hypnosis software released to public. News Releases, (October 1984), pp 1-4.
New Life Institute announced subliminal software for the IBM PC and compatibles.
The user can choose which problem area to address, such as weight-loss, stopping smoking.
The subconscious suggestions flash as a background while users work at other tasks such as word processing or data input.
In an 8 hour session at the computer, the user is exposed to 28,800 suggestions.
The package also includes a self-hypnosis program.
Dingell dangles clout over alcohol hearings. Advertising Age, (February 11, 1985), p. 2 & 84.
Sen. P. Hawkins, R-FL, closed a one-day Senate session before her alcoholism and drug abuse subcommittee by denouncing the "subliminal" effects of alcohol ads on the public.
It was argued by industry representatives that no one has proven the cause/effect relationship between beer and wine ads and alcohol abuse.
Dristan ads are blatantly subliminal. Marketing (December 9, 1985), 90 (49), p. 2. ISSN: 0025-3642.
An advertisement run by Whitehall Laboratories on its Dristan Cold Tablet is a spoof on so-called subliminal advertising.
Most of the times all the viewer sees is a blank screen with the Dristan box appearing for a few, one-thirtieth of a second intervals.
The voice-over tells viewers that they will forget the commercial, but that some day, when they need a cold remedy, they will remember the spot. According to AC Nielson data, this ad has increased this product's market share.
Outdoor advertising requires great use of creativity. Marketing News, (June 7, 1985), pp 7 & 24.
The idea behind billboard advertising is the reinforcement of an ad message, and also as an aid to prompting consumer purchases.
Outdoor works well because of its ability to reinforce a message in a way that cannot be skipped over or ignored.
The subliminal effect is powerful.
Post yuppies - Are they turning into computer sneaks? New Release, (October 1, 1985), pp 1-4.
International Resource Development believes that the market for self-improvement software will rapidly increase as the home software market shifts to meet the needs of consumers 25 to 44 (the post-Yuppie generation.
There will be a growing demand for software that focuses on nutritional and exercise issues, diagnoses symptoms of illness and personality software that helps the user win friends etc.
Some programs raise the user's awareness of his/her personal habits, while others flash subliminal messages across the screen while something else is viewed.
Shoplifting Reduced 80% by Subliminal Technology. American Metal Market (August 16, 1984), p. 14.
Retail stores used subliminal appeals to reduce shoplifting by 80%, but critics worried about privacy and ethical issues.
Subliminal techniques entail projecting visual messages of short duration and transmitting low-volume audio messages that cannot be consciously perceived.
States such as California are considering legislation to bar subliminal technology without full disclosure to the individuals of its use and presence.
The American Civil Liberties Union claims the technology has enormous potential for abuse and is tantamount to brainwashing.
Spaghetti and tomato sauces -- why not aseptics? Paper, Film & Foil Converter, (October 1985), pp 100-104.
Aseptic tomato-based products are popular in the United Kingdom due to their image of being fresher.
This idea of freshness is furthered subliminally because of the packages limited shelf life.
Subliminal testing: 25 years later. Marketing Communications, (April 1985), p. 8. ISSN: 0091-1305.
Subliminal television advertising involves flashing images across a screen just below the level of conscious vision.
Recent psychological tests have shown the technique will elicit emotional reactions from viewers even though the actual mental processes responsible for it are at the unconscious level.
A problem with the use of this technique is that Congress and the FBI have declared the ads a threat to the consumer freedom of choice.
Suggestive software. Computer Decisions, (January 29, 1985), p. 26.
Greentree Publishers offers software that flashes subliminal messages on employee's VDTs.
Any type of message can be flashed on the screen, including positive notes that make employees feel good about their jobs, or a simple and more terse "work faster."
"Threshold messaging" touted as antitheft measure. Marketing News, (March 15, 1985), pp 5 & 6.
Proactive Systems in Portland, Ore. is offering a threshold messaging system for retailers as an antitheft service.
Low volume messages such as "Be honest", "Don't steal" and "We welcome honest shoppers" are played over loud speakers, thousands of times a day.
The messages are in a tiny microprocessor chip inside a computer, which is wired to volume-sensors in loud speakers, and matches the volume of the messages to the fluctuating noise in the store.
FCC regulations prohibit the use of subliminal, hidden or intentionally deceptive messages, but as, technically, the Proactive system is not subliminal nor subaudible, it is legal.
Proactive Systems client stores post signs on the front door notifying shoppers of the messaging.
Pre- and post-tests have been carried out on this product, and the results showed that it does affect shoplifting.
However, the system is only effective on shoppers who have been in the store for at least 8 minutes.
Enter a quiet voice against shoplifting. Providence Journal, (February 18, 1986), p. SecB & 1.
Subliminal messages are being used by retailers to combat shoplifting.
The idea behind the tapes is to reinforce a person's redisposition not to steal and not to create a desire to buy.
Subliminal tapes are responsible for a 25 to 35 percent decrease in shoplifting.
Reeling and dealing: Video meet Wall Street. Business Week Industrial Edition (May 19, 1986), pp 126-128.
Nearly all major brokerage firms are using video films to promote new products.
W.H. Liebman, of Frank-Guenther Law advertising agency, warns that the nature of visual medium is to offer a subliminal message that can be unduly influential.
Study claims office computer is used as management fink. MIS Week (April 21, 1986), p. 36.
Office computers are being used to monitor and control employees activities.
Under the guise of reducing stress and increasing productivity, employers monitor VDT operators and send them subliminal messages.
Subliminal messages: Subtle crime stoppers. Chain Store Age Executive Edition, July 1986), p. 85-88.
Subliminal messages are used in 1,000 plus retail stores as a deterrent to shoplifting.
The reinforcement of a subliminal being repeated scores of times an hour will have an effect on someone who is already predisposed to suggestion concerning his or her value system.
The messages will therefore not be effective on all shoplifters.
Crooked Employees. Building Supply & Home Centers, (April 1987), pp 88-94.
Building supply home centers turn to high-tech hardware to curb employee theft.
Some 20 to 25% of retailers use honesty tests and subliminal suggestions might prove to be helpful.
Pier Auge's re-entry more exclusive. Women's Wear Daily, (March 13, 1987), p. 30.
In-store Pier Auge institutes offer a 1.5 hour facial, during which customers hear subliminal tapes and have aroma treatments.
Spirit industry beams over BATF review. Advertising Age, (August 13, 1984), p. 6.
Amongst the BATF proposals regarding the advertising of alcohol, is the ban on subliminal advertising.
If this fails, try smashing the bug with the flat end of the radio. Wall Street Journal 3 Star, (Princeton, NJ) (June 5, 1985), 205 (109), p. 33. ISSN: 0043-0080.
Radio station, CIME-FM of Ste Therese, Quebec, broadcasts subliminal relaxation messages in the evening and subliminal-energizing messages in the morning.
CRTC changes mind on television rules. Marketing (Canada's weekly newspaper of marketing communication). (January 19, 1987). 92 (3), pp 1 & 3.
Amongst the other changes the CRTC have made to their regulations is the lifting of the ban regarding the use of subliminal advertising.
However, the CRTC has asked the industry to come up with its own guidelines.
Subliminal advertising: Fact or fantasy. Advertising Compliance Service. (November 18, 1985). 5 (22), pp 4-7. ISSN: 0277-9943.
This article discusses subliminal advertising with regards to the technique of tachistopic projection.
According to Wilson Brian Key, author of The Clamplate Orgy and Media Sexploitation, TV commercials are a rich source of subliminal adverting.
Tachistopic projection has been the subject of FCC notices and of Congressional hearings.
The FCC believes it has the authority to control subliminal advertising and cited several sections of the Communications Act of 1934 which support the authority.
Subliminal advertising: Fact or fancy. Advertising Compliance Service. (December 2, 1985). 5, (23), pp 8-12. ISSN: 0277-9943.
Possible suggestions for regulating subliminal advertising are: 1) adding a definition of subliminal advertising and a statement that it is unfair and deceptive to section 5 of the Federal Trade Commission act. 2) treating subliminal advertising as an invasion of privacy tort, but proving invasion of privacy would be difficult, 3) some people believe the ground work was laid by the court in Banzhaf vs FC, where a judge ruled that broadcast messages, unlike print ads, can not be avoided without conscious effort on the viewer or listener.
Subliminal advertising: Do messages lurk in the shadows?. Food and Beverage Marketing (October, 1985). 4, (10), p. 42. ISSN: 0731-3799.
Dr. Haberstroh, professor at Virginia Commonwealth University, states that there is no evidence that subliminal advertising affects products' sales.
The consumer, however, does believe that this kind of symbolism exists, and this is mainly due to the books by Wilson Brian Key.
Inspite of the denials by the advertising industry regarding the use of subliminals, their reputation with the consumer is poor.
Sidelights: Subliminal/videos. Television/Radio Age. (January 7, 1985). 32 (13), p. 96. ISSN: 0040-277X.
This article discusses the use of subliminal self-improvement video tapes.
While the consumer watches footage of fattening foods or ash-trays filled with cigarette butts, printed messages such as "eat less" and "you can do it" are being flashed on the screen at a rate to fast to register with the conscious mind.
The suggestions act on a subliminal level where they reportedly alter viewer behavior.
The safety and effectiveness of these suggestions remains to be seen.
Subliminal messages come out of the closet. Progressive Grocer. (April, 1985). 64 (4), pp 6 & 10. ISSN: 0033-0787.
Electronic subliminal messaging systems, using "honesty reinforcements" messages, have resulted in as much as 30% reductions in retail thefts.
Subliminal messages are normally adjusted to the level of the noise in the store.
Proactive Systems of Milwaukee have overcome objections by critics to "mind control" by developing a system that can be turned up to the "threshold of hearing" so that the messages can be heard if listened to.
However, it is claimed that this system may not be as effective as it works best when the consumer is unaware of the messages.
A report on subliminal perception and subliminal tapes for self-improvement. Institute of Human Development. (1986).
This guide provided detailed information about what subliminal perception is and how you can use subliminal tape programming to make the life changes you desire.
What's new in subliminal messages by John Lofflin. The New York Times. (March 20, 1988). p. 63.
Although there is still great controversy over the effectiveness of subliminal messages, self-help audio cassette containing subliminal messages are taking bookstores by storm.
The self-help subliminal tapes available cover a whole range of problems from stopping nail-biting to cancer remission.
Subliminal computer software is available but due to inadequacies of monitors available, they are not a big seller. One of the advantages of this software is that the user can write their own subliminal messages, which researchers say may be more effective because the words are cast in a familiar way.
The potential for the mis-use of subliminals discussed.
There's less to subliminal audio tapes than meets the ears. Your Personal Best. (June, 1990).
Timothy Moore, Ph.D., former chairman of the psychology department at Glendon College, York University, Toronto, states that self-help subliminal audio tapes are form of health fraud.
Anthony Greenwald, Ph.D., professor of psychology at the University of Washington carried out a "normal use" study on four brands of subliminal self-help audio tapes and found them to have no effect. There was no mention as to which brands were tested or the technology and specifications employed in manufacturing them.
Moore states that not one respectable study has shown that audio subliminal have any effect on behavior, but that visual subliminals do have an effect.
There is no mention of any research carried out by Moore to substantiate his claims.
Martin, A. (1975). The effect of subliminal stimulation of symbiotic fantasies on weight loss in obese women receiving behavioral treatment. New York University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 36 (6-B), pp 3054-3055.
Martin, D.G., Hawryluk, G.A. & Guse, L.L. (1974). Experimental study of unconscious influences: Ultrasound as a stimulus. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 83.
Maxwell, N. (1980, November 25). Words whispered to subconscious supposedly deter thefts, fainting. Wall Street Journal.
Neil Maxwell reported on a subliminal message system in a New Orleans supermarket, which accounted for a drop in pilferage loss from about $50,000 to less than $13,000 in six months.
Cashier shortages dropped from $125 per week to less than $10 per week.
McConnell, J.V., Cutler, R.L. & McNeil, E.B. (1958). Subliminal stimulation: An overview. American Psychologist, 13.
McCormack, J.J. (1980). Effects of gender, intensity and duration of sex-related visual subliminals upon the submission of controlled attention. East Texas State University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 41 (6-A), pp 2409-2410.
John McCormack performed this study in order to determine if a subject's own admission of controlled attention was altered by varying levels of projected light intensities and durations of a sex-related subliminal message.
The correlation between the respondents' admission of controlled attention and their gender also was investigated.
An inquiry was made into differences in responses of the various stimulated groups and the unstimulated control groups.
Without their knowledge, subjects were exposed to a sex-related subliminal message within a normal classroom environment.
The subliminal presentation was linked to a learning task provided within the post test.
The subjects were divided into seven groups; Group 1 received such stimulation at a .975-footcandle intensity for 15 minutes. Group 2 was stimulated with a .975-footcandle presentation for 5 minutes. Group 3 encountered the .975-footcandle subliminal display for one minutes. Group 4 received the message at a .650-footcandle intensity for 15 minutes. Group 5 was administered the image for 5 minutes at .650-footcandles. Group 6 was stimulated at the .650-footcandle intensity for 1 minute. Group 7 was a control group and received no stimulation.
A two-way analysis of variance, the Friedman's Analysis of Variance, the independent t-test, the Mann-Whitney U test, and the Pearson product-moment correlation were performed on the results.
The results of the study were; 1) a statistically significant relationship was found between intensities and durations of a sex-related visual subliminal message upon subjects' submission of controlled attention to a prescribed learning task, 2) no statistically significant difference was found among groups which were different only in the intensity of subliminal stimulation they received, 3) some evidence of a statistically significant difference was found among groups which were different only in the duration of subliminal stimulation they received, and 4) no evidence of a statistically significant correlation was found between the gender of the subject and the submission of controlled attention to a prescribed learning task.
It was concluded that; 1) the use of sex-related subliminal stimulation has a significant effect on learners' admission of their submission of controlled learning tasks, and 2) the use of rheostatically controlled light images does provide an efficient and inexpensive method for the introduction of subliminal messages in a classroom environment.
McDaniel, S.W., Hart, S.H. & McNeal, J.U. (1981). Mid-Atlantic Journal of Business, 20 (1), pp 41-48. ISSN: 0021-9401.
Stephen McDaniel, Sandra Hart and James McNeal reviewed the findings of several subliminal stimulation experiments and considered possible business applications of subliminal stimulation.
Areas analyzed were; 1) the influence of subliminal stimulation on an individual's behavior, 2) the ability of research marketing to affect the consumer through subliminal, and 3) the success of actual subliminal stimulation in marketing attempts.
The findings indicated that; a) individuals are able to register stimuli at a subliminal level, b) physiological drives, such as hunger, thirst and sex are evidently aroused by the stimuli, and c) some kinds of behavioral changes are induced. d) there is no evidence that brand preference and advertisement recall are affected by the stimuli, and e) the results do not show that subliminal advertising affects the buying behavior of consumers.
McGinley, L. (1986, January 1). Uncle Sam believes messages about mom help calm nerves. Wall Street Journal.
This article reported that several studies clearly demonstrate the effectiveness of subliminal technology.
McGreen, P. (1989). The effects of father absence on affective responses to subliminal symbiotic messages. Ohio University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 46 (11-B), pp 4021-4022. ISSN: 0419-4209.
McIver, T. (1988). Backward masking, and other backward thoughts about music. The Skeptical Inquirer, 13, pp 50-63.
Tom McIver discusses the use of backward masking and subliminals in popular rock music.
McLaughlin, M. (1987). Subliminal tapes urge shoppers to heed the warning sounds of silence: "Don't steal". New England Business, 9 (2), pp 36-37. ISSN: 0164-3533.
This article reports on a system developed by David Riccio, president of Viaticus Group, which consists of musical audio programs for retail stores combined with subliminal messages designed to discourage shoplifting.
Research shows that shoplifting has been reduced between 20 and 40% in settings that use this approach.
The system is not, however, being recommended as a blanket answer to security systems.
Another point to be noted also, is that the system is only effective amongst those with a predisposition to consider and respond to the subliminal messages.
McNulty, J.A., Dockrill, F.J. & Levy, B.A. (1967) The subthreshold perception of stimulus-meaning? American Journal of Psychology, 80 (1), pp 28-40. ISSN: 0002-9556.
Mencarelli, J. (1983, June 23). The music is the message? Or is the message in the music? Ann Arbor News.
Mendelsohn, E.M. (1979). Responses of schizophrenic men to subliminal psychodynamic stimuli. Yeshiva University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 40 (12-B, part 1), pp 5820-5821.
Mendelsohn, E.M. (1981). The effects of stimulating symbiotic fantasies on manifest pathology in schizophrenics. A revised formulation. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases, pp 580-590.
Mendelson, M. (1984). An investigation of the relationship between the symbiotic subliminal stimulus Mommy and I are One and oral receptivity and oral aggressivity as measured by the Rorschach test. Florida Institute of Technology. Dissertation Abstracts International, 45 (5-B), pp 1601-1602. ISSN: 0419-4209.
Morris Mendelsohn investigated the relationship between a symbiotic subliminal stimulus (Mommy and I are one) and behaviour as measured by the Rorschach.
The experimental group were shown the symbiotic stimulus by use of a tachistoscope, and the control group were shown the neutral stimulus, (people are walking).
Both groups were shown the Rorschach cards with the study being limited to the oral receptive and oral aggressive components to illustrate the psychodynamics of symbiotic symbiosis.
Previous studies have shown that the fantasy of oneness with a maternal representative may result in transference improvements because the therapist is experienced as a reincarnate of the parent, providing protection and a lost omnipotence.
Mendelsohn, E. & Silverman, L.H. (1982). Effects of stimulating psychodynamically relevant unconscious fantasies on schizophrenic psychopathology. New York Hospital, Cornell Medical Center, Division of Psychology, Westchester. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 8 (3), pp 532-547. ISSN: 0586-7614.
Eric Mendelsohn and Lloyd Silverman reviewed the research on the effects of subliminal tachistoscopic presentation of aggressive and oneness fantasies on the manifest pathology of adult schizophrenics.
The findings indicate that the activation of particular unconscious fantasies can lead to exacerbation or amelioration of schizophrenic symptoms, regardless of etiology.
Activation of oral-aggressive fantasies produced increases in disordered thinking, while libidinal stimuli affected cognitive efficiency and nonverbal pathology.
The fact that these results do not tend to hold when stimuli are visible to subjects is consistent with the view that, once a stimulus that activates disturbing mental content reaches awareness, its status as a motivator may be diminished.
Stimulation of a fantasy of symbiotic-like gratification produced temporary symptomatic improvement in "differentiated" male schizophrenics. This effect, however, was conditional because such fantasies may have disturbing as well as therapeutic connotations.
Also discussed were the specific conditions under which the subliminal activation of fantasies have a positive or negative effect.
Merikle, P.M. (1982). Unconscious perception revisited. University of Waterloo, Canada. Perception & Psychophysics, 31 (3), pp 298-301. ISSN: 0031-5117.
Philip Merikle reviewed recent studies to evaluate the validity of the perception-without-awareness hypotheses.
Studies demonstrating the efficacy of masked priming stimuli do not necessarily demonstrate perception without awareness.
In all studies, awareness or consciousness was defined as the ability to make discriminated verbal reports.
An absence of discriminated verbal reports does not necessarily imply an absence of awareness, or in other words, an inability to discriminate primes from blank fields.
Information is needed regarding the response distributions in order to establish that an absence of discriminated verbal reports actually indicates the absence of awareness.
It was concluded that none of the experiments can provide definitive evidence for or against perception without awareness. This is because all of the studies had too few trials at the threshold stimulus onset asynchrony to establish meaningful response distributions.
Meyers, H.G. (1982). The effects of a double bind induced by conflicting visual and auditory subliminal stimuli. St. John's University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 42 (8-B), p. 3432. ISSN: 0419-4209.
Helen Meyers performed this study in order to determine the effects on state anxiety, word associations and word recognition ability of conflicting positive and negative auditory and visual subliminal messages.
The subliminal psychodynamic activation technique was used in order to stimulate the general characteristics of a short-term double bind.
Subjects classified as either right or left hemisphere activators, were tested before and after five subliminal conditions in which different combinations of auditory and visual subliminal messages were presented simultaneously.
Two hypotheses were put forward; 1) there would be disruptive effects of the simulated double bind communications, and 2) there would be positive effects with the congruent symbiotic stimulation.
The hypotheses were only upheld for the blocking scores on the word association test.
The lack of complete support for the subliminal activation of the double bind was discussed with reference to; a) the elusiveness of the double bind concept, b) the sensitivity of the subliminal technique to individual differences and minor procedural variations, and c) the capability of the dependent measures to adequately reflect subtle short term changes in affective and cognitive states.
It was found that the complex interactions and effects involving various sex and hemispheric activation factors further complicated the interpretation of the data.
Further studies were recommended in order to investigate; a) possible connections between a preference for a left hemisphere cognitive style, b) susceptibility to the double bind, and c) disruptions in associative thought processes.
It was suggested that further research focus on the interrelationship of cognitive and defensive styles, and inter- and intra-personal dynamics of males and females as these variables affect reaction to double bind situations, susceptibility to subliminal stimulation and performance on memory tasks.
Miller, J.G. (1939). Discrimination without awareness. American Journal of Psychology, 52, pp 562-578.
James Miller used an opaque mirror to project five subliminal images.
The results showed that the subjects were able to discriminate projected objects to a degree significantly greater than chance.
When the subjects were told that subliminal images had been projected during the trials, they were surprised and incredulous.
Miller, J.M. (1974). The effects of aggressive stimulation upon young adults who have experienced the death of a parent during childhood or adolescence. Dissertation Abstracts International, 35 (2-B), pp 1055-1056.
Miller, L. (1986). In search of the unconscious. Seton Hall University. Psychology Today, 20 (12), pp 60-64. ISSN: 0033-3107.
In this article, Lawrence Miller discussed the use of the techniques and concepts of the neurosciences to examine fundamental Freudian constructs such as the unconscious mind, repression, dream symbolism, sexuality, and the development of neurotic symptoms.
Amongst the relevant researched reviewed was subliminal perception.
Mind invasion: The facts. (December, 1973). Family Health, p. 42.
This article presents information about Hal Becker's "little black box," U.S. patent No. 3,278,676.
The article includes pro and con quotes from several experts in the fields of subliminal communication and law enforcement.
Mitchell. M.S. (1985). The effects of subliminally presented praise and reprobation stimuli on willingness to self-disclose. Arizona State University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 45 (12-B Pt 1), p. 3986. ISSN: 0419-4209.
Mofield, J.P. (1986). Response of blood pressure to relaxation and subliminal suggestion. Ball State University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 46 (9-A), p. 2632. ISSN: 0419-4209.
Moore, J.F. (1982). An exploratory study of subliminal perception and field dependence in a concept learning task taught by television. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 44 (01-A), p. 49.
John Moore studied the effects of subliminal captions on recall of cognitive information presented in a TV program.
In 4 sessions, the subjects saw an 8-minute captioned TV program about ancient architecture and then completed the Group Embedded Figures Test, a recall test, several qualitative rating items concerning the program, and demographic questions.
A post-test only 2x4 design was used.
The captioning method was varied so as to give four experimental conditions; 1) subliminal captions only, 2) conventional (visible) captions only, 3) subliminal and visible combined for reinforcement, and (4) subliminal and visible incorrectly matched for interference.
It was found that, in comparison to other treatments, the program having "combined" captions produced significantly higher recall among field dependents and received significantly higher ratings on teaching effectiveness and student interest.
It was concluded that recall is improved when conventional instruction is supplemented with subliminal.
Moore, T.E. (1982). Subliminal advertising: What you see is what you get. York University, Glendon College, Toronto, Canada. Journal of Marketing, 46 (2), pp 38-47. ISSN: 0022-2429.
Timothy Moore evaluates the evidence and arguments advanced in support of the effectiveness of various subliminal advertising techniques.
Subliminal advertising techniques are purported to influence consumer behavior by subconsciously altering preferences or attitudes toward consumer products.
While there is some evidence that subliminal stimuli may influence reactions, the marketing relevance of this finding is not documented.
The idea that subliminal directives can influence behavior is contradicted by much research and is incompatible with theoretical conceptions of perceptions and motivation.
Subliminal perception is real but the effects are subtle and obtaining them requires a carefully constructed context.
The potential impact of subliminal stimuli is easily countered by ongoing stimulation in the same sensory channel or by the attention being focused on another modality.
Moore, T.E. (1985). Subliminal delusions. Psychology Today, 19 (2), p. 10.
Moore, T.E. (1988). The case against subliminal manipulation. Glendon College, York University. Psychology and Marketing, 5 (4), pp 297-316.
Timothy Moore claims that there is no scientific evidence to support the claims that subliminal stimuli can have significant effects on motives and behavior.
Moore states that there is nothing to be concerned about when advertisers or musicians use subliminals.
Morgan D.L. (Ed.). (1987). Readings in subliminal communication. (Rev. ed.). Report No. 1. Clarion, PA: Center for Independent Research.
Morgan, D.L. & Cole, M.J. (1987). Subliminal suppression of pain. (Report No. 5.). Clarion University, PA: Center for Independent Research,
An investigation was carried to test the hypothesis that more than half the subjects who use the SCWL technique for pain relief would report a reduced intensity of pain.
The results showed that; a) 52 percent of the subjects reported that while using the tape, they experienced no pain or it was forgotten except when their attention was directed to it. b) 67 percent reported that they received the benefit that they expected from the tape. c) 76 percent reported noticeable relief, and d) 81 percent continued to use the tape.
No control group was used.
The number of patients who did report relief with the tape (76 percent) was statistically significant.
Morgan, D.L. & Morgan, P.K. & Kole, J. (1985). Effect of subliminal messages on academic performance. Report No. 2. Clarion University, PA: Center for Independent Research.
Don Morgan, Patricia Morgan and James Kole demonstrated the effectiveness of subliminal techniques for improving academic performance.
A double blind study was performed to test the effects of an SCWL program, designed to increase recall in test situations.
The results showed that the experimental group outperformed their classmates who listened to identical sounding placebo tapes containing no subliminal messages.
It was found that; 1) the subliminal group reported an increase in the number of hours spent in study and the control group reported a decrease. 2) the experimental group quality point grade average went from 2.28 to 2.73 while the control group average dropped from 2.47 to 2.46.
Morgan, D.L. & Morgan, P.K. (1987). Subliminal learning. (Report NO. 4). Clarion University, PA: Center for Independent Research, 40 pages.
Don and Patricia Morgan surveyed the research related to use of subliminal communication in schools and other learning situations.
Morgan, P.K. & Morgan, D.L. (1988). Subliminal Research: Bibliography and Review. (Report No. 3). Center for Independent Research.
Patricia and Don Morgan presented a bibliography and review of all the literature relating to subliminal communication.
Moriarty, J.B. (1968). Cognitive functioning of schizophrenics as affected by "aggressive" stimuli subliminally and supraliminally presented. Fordham University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 29( 2-B), p. 775.
Moroney, E. & Bross, M. (1984). Effect of subliminal visual material on an auditory signal detection task. Concordia University, Montreal, Canada. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 58 (1), pp 103-113. ISSN: 0031-5125.
Elaine Moroney and Michael Bross performed this experiment in order to assess whether subliminally embedded visual material could have effects on an auditory detection task, which would indicate that subliminal registration occurred.
Subjects were presented tachistoscopically with words designated as "emotional" or "neutral" on the basis of prior GSRs and a word rating list under 4 conditions; a) unembedded neutral, b) embedded neutral, c) unembedded emotional, and d) embedded emotional.
On each trial, the subjects made forced choices concerning the presence or absence of an auditory tone (1000Hz) at threshold level.
Hits and false-alarm rates were used to compute non-parametric indices for sensitivity and response bias.
While overall ANVOAs yielded no significant differences, further examination of the data suggested the presence of subliminally receptive and nonreceptive subpopulations.
Morrison, A.P. (1984). Reflections on "Unconscious oneness fantasies." Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts Mental Health Center, Boston. International Forum for Psychoanalysis, 1 (2), pp 167-180. ISSN: 0738-8217.
Andrew Morrison discusses the work of L.H. Silverman et al who found that the presentation of subliminal symbiotic messages to some psychiatric patients, including schizophrenics, had the effect of decreasing or increasing their psychopathology, depending on the message content (and, for schizophrenics, on the degree of differentiation).
Unlike the conclusions of Silverman et al, Morrison suggests that the ability to tolerate feelings of union and individuation is a major task of therapy.
A case history of a 30-year-old man who had fantasies of merging with a male friend is described.
Morse, R.C. & Stoller, D. (September, 1982). The hidden message that breaks habits. Science Digest, 90, p. 28.
This article reviews subliminal research and concludes that, "Experiments show subliminal stimuli possess mysterious therapeutic powers."
The example of subliminal advertising given was the six-week test of the technique in 1957, where viewers at a Fort Lee, New Jersey movie theater were exposed to "eat popcorn" and "drink Coca-Cola" messages flashed on the screen every five seconds for about 1/1000 of a second during the film.
Popcorn sales increased by 57.5% and Coca-Cola sales by 18%.
Mowbray, G.H. (1964). Perception and retention of verbal information presented during auditory shadowing. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 36, pp 1459-1464.
Mullins, W.W. (1978). Convexity theorem for subthreshold stimuli in linear models of visual contrast detection. Carnegie-Mellon University. Journal of the Optical Society of America, 68 (4), pp 456-459. ISSN: 0030-3941.
Mullins discusses the convexity theorem for subthreshold stimuli in linear models of visual contrast detection.
If it is assumed that visual contrast detection occurs by a parallel array of linear detectors, either without probability summation or with probability summation of a commonly used type, then the set of functions representing subthreshold stimuli must be convex.
Murch, G.M. (1965). A set of conditions for a consistent recovery of a subliminal stimulus. Journal for Applied Psychology, 49 (4), pp 257-260. ISSN: 0021-9010.
Gerald Murch conducted this study, a) in order to test the possibility for the recovery of subliminally presented stimuli, and b) to aid in the understanding of the conditions under which effects of subliminal stimulation can be found with consistency.
Three experimental groups, each with their corresponding controls, were given mathematical problems in a tachistoscope as a supraliminal stimulus.
The experimental groups received subliminal answers to the problems at a level established by a pre-test group.
Group 1 attempted to solve the problems, group 2 to guess the answers and group 3 to select their answers from dual possibilities on a given list.
Groups 1 and 2 showed a significant tendency to repeat various subliminally projected digits in their answers , without the answers directly affecting their computational processes.
Group 3 selected the projected answers significantly over the correct answers.
It was found that their is a need for a positive relationship between supra- and subliminal stimuli as well as the relevancy of the task to the subject's present activity.
Murch, G.M. (1967). Temporal gradients of response to subliminal stimuli. Portland State College. Psychological Record, 17 (4),pp 483-492.
Gerald Murch performed this study in order to investigate the duration of the effects of subliminal stimulation in a discrimination situation.
Parts of two letters were shown supraliminally in a three-field tachistoscope.
Subliminal completions of these letters were presented which were to be discriminated from two other equally likely alternatives not previously presented subliminally.
The presentation of the response categories was delayed for 0, 100, 250, 500, 1000 or 2000 msec.
The major results of each experiment indicated increased response probabilities after delays of 1, 100 and 250 msec.
A tendency for more rapid responding to correspond to the selection of the subliminal stimulus was observed, however.
Lengthening the time in which a response could be made did not increase response accuracy.
A general model based on threshold changes of stimulated receptors is presented.
Mykel, N.B. (1977). Emergence of unreported stimuli into imagery as a function of laterality of presentation. Georgia State University School of Arts and Sciences. Dissertation Abstracts International, 37 (8-B), p. 4158.
Nancy Mykel performed three experiments.
Experiment 1 successfully replicated Henley and Dixon (1974).
Two experimental groups received subliminal words to the right ear and music to the left ear or vice versa.
After eight minutes, the subjects were asked to report all imagery evoked during the session and complete a checklist containing stimulus, associated, and nonrelated words, guessing as to which might have been presented during the session.
The results showed that emergence of subliminal material was greater with words to the right ear (i.e. to the speech hemisphere) than with no words.
In experiment 2 the music was eliminated. The experimental subjects therefore received subliminal messages to the right ear, and the control subjects received no input at all.
Again, the emergence and number of stimulus or associated words checked by the subjects were greater for the experimental group.
In the third experiment, the subjects were trained in relaxation and instruction in becoming aware of the imagery, and reported imagery during stimulus presentation rather than after.
The subjects were divided into three groups; a) group 1 received subliminal words to the right ear, b) group 2 received subliminal words to the left ear, and c) group 3 received no input.
The group which received words to the right ear was judged to contain the least amount of emergence.
Possible reasons for this result were discussed.
Mykel, N. & Davies, W.F. (1979). Emergence of unreported stimuli into imagery as a function of laterality of presentation: A replication of and extension of research by Henley and Dixon (1974). Gallia-Jackson-Meigs Community Mental Health Center, Gallipolis, OH. British Journal of Psychology, 70 (2), pp 253-258. ISSN: 0007-1269.
Nancy Mykel and Walter Davies performed two experiments.
For experiment 1, the subjects were divided into to groups, group one received subliminal words to the right ear and music to the left, and group two, words to the left and music to the right.
The results showed that emergence of subliminal material was greater with words to the right ear than with no words.
There was no difference in the results obtained from the group who received words to the left ear, and the control group.
For experiment 2, the music was eliminated and additional subjects received either subliminal words to the right ear or no words at all.
The results showed a significant difference between the groups for emergence of the subliminal stimuli and on the checklist, but not when the results were categorized by judges.
These results replicate the work of Henley and Dixon and extend them to the condition where no music is presented.
Nachmias, D. (1981, March). Subliminal politics. Annals of American Academic Politics and Social Science, 454 (2), p. 230.
Nash, C.B. (1986). Comparison of subliminal and extrasensory perception. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 53 (805), pp 435-455.
Nicholson, H.E. (1980). The effect of contradictory subliminal stimuli and sensitization thereto upon viewer's perceptions of video-taped testimony. Michigan State University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 40 (9-A), p. 4802.
Henry Nicholson designed this study in order to ascertain whether video taped testimonies in legal proceedings are alterable by superimposing subliminal messages on these tapes.
Several items of testimony in a video tape deposition, which were intrinsically equivalent in terms of viewer retention, belief and perceived importance, were identified.
Four video tapes were produced which contained visual testimony-contradicting messages.
The intensity of the superimposed messages was different in each of the four tapes.
The subjects were divided into two groups, one sensitized to the presence of the messages, and the other not.
Results showed no difference between the subliminal experimental group and the control group.
Subjects in the supraliminal conditions exhibited significantly lower belief of testimony and significantly more positive attitude towards participation than did other subjects.
Sensitization to the presence of the stimuli was found to significantly decrease belief and increase perceived importance of testimony.
The conclusions drawn from this study is that video taped presentations of testimony can be made to juries without adverse effects from subliminal messages.
Nicholson, S.M. (1980). The effects of four types of subliminal stimuli on female depressives. Yeshiva University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 40 (7-B), pp 3412-3413.
Nissenfield, S.M. (1980). The effects of four types of subliminal stimuli on female depressives. Yeshiva University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 40 (7-B), pp 3412-3413.
Nolan, K.A. & Caramazza, A. (1982). Unconscious perception of meaning: A failure to replicate. University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 20 (1), pp 23-26. ISSN: 0090-5054.
Karen Nolan and Alfonso Caramazza failed to substantiate A.J. Marcel's claim that semantic information (SI) can be extracted from visually presented words and can affect responses to subsequent stimuli under conditions that prevented identification of the stimulus word and even awareness of its presence.
The subjects were assigned to either visual or semantic groups.
The results obtained were consistent with the traditional information processing models of reading, which state that retrieval of a semantic representation for a visually presented word requires prior computation of a graphemic code for the word and that SI cannot become available in the absence of corresponding visual/graphemic information.
Oberlander, R. (1979). Beauty in a hospital aids the cure. Hospitals, 53 (6), pp 89-92. ISSN: 0018-5973.
It has been found that color photography, combined with nature, acts as a healing medium on a conscious level as well as on subliminal levels.
Ofman, P.S. (1988). Effects of sexual and aggressive subliminal stimulation on response to sexual and aggressive humor. Dissertation Abstracts International, 48 (7-B), p. 2105.
O'Grady, M. (1977). Effect of pictorial stimulation on skin resistance. Perceptual and Motor Skills, pp 1051-1056.
Oliver, I. (1984). Controlling stock shrinkage by subliminal suggestion. Unpublished manuscript. Subliminal Security Systems, P.O. Box 247, Jamison, ACT, 2614, Australia.
Oliver, J.M. & Burkham, R. (1982). Subliminal psychodynamic activation in depression: A failure to replicate. St. Louis University. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 91 (5), pp 337-342. ISSN: 0021-843X.
This study attempts to replicate S. Nissenfield's (1979) application of L.H. Silverman's technique of subliminal psychodynamic activation, in which a significant effect on statelike psychopathology symptomatic of depression was found for the "symbiotic" stimulus.
The subjects were administered 3 subliminal stimuli; 1) a control stimulus (people talking), 2) the symbiotic stimulus (mommy and I are one), and 3) a rapprochement stimulus (mommy loves me as I am).
Dependent variable were anxious and depressed affect as measured by the Multiple Affect Adjective Check List, depressed and hypomanic themes rated from the TAT, the Digit Symbol subscale from the WAIS, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and Silverman's measure of pathological nonverbal behavior.
The MANOVA found no significant effects for any of the independent variables.
Neither the inadequate power of statistical tests nor deficient methodology accounted for this failure to replicate Nissenfield's findings.
Oliver, J.M. & Burkham, R. (1985). Comments on three recent subliminal psychodynamic activation investigations: Reply to Silverman. St. Louis University. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 94 (4), p. 644. ISSN: 0021-843X.
The authors believe that their failure to replicate L.H. Silverman's 1976 description of subliminal psychodynamic activation, can be traced in part to Silverman's 1978 description of the "symbiotic" stimulus (mommy and I are one), one of the two experimental stimuli used, as a "ubiquitous therapeutic agent."
The authors also believe that, although Silverman's is prepared to modify his theory in light of empirical findings, modifications that are too frequent and numerous will pose problems for both theory and research.
Olson, M.C. (1975). Subliminal messages in advertising. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Conference on English Education.
Miles Olson discusses the use of subliminals in advertising.
In his books, Wilson B. Key has demonstrated that subliminal messages in ads are perceived and do have an impact on attitudes and actions.
Olson has found as a result of his own personal research, that advertisements are full of hidden information, which is usually sexual in nature.
Olson also believes that we cannot accept or reject such information until we become conscious of it and are able to act on it in our normal, rational ways.
Ostrander, S. & Schroeder, L. (1979). Superlearning, New York: Dell publishing.
Ostrander, S. & Schroeder, L. (1985). Subliminal Report, New York: Super-learning.
Sheila Ostrander and Lynn Schroeder have written review of the literature regarding subliminal research.
Overbeeke, C.J. (1986). Changing the perception of behavioral properties by subliminal presentation. Delft University of Technology, Netherlands. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 62 (1), pp 255-258. ISSN: 0031-5125.
Subjects were asked to estimate the age of a profile of a 10-year-old boy preceded subliminally by an older (old group) or younger (young group) profile or by a blank card (control group).
The results show the mean estimate of the young group to be significantly smaller than that of the control group.
The mean estimate of the old group was not significantly greater than that of the control group.
The results indicate that higher level perceptual processing (the perception of behavioral properties) can precede lower level perceptual processing (the perception of physical properties).
Packard, V. (1957). The Hidden Persuaders. New York: David McKay,
Packard V. (1981 February). The new (and still hidden) persuaders. Reader's Digest, 118 (4), pp 120-123.
Vance Packard discusses the use of subliminals in advertising.
Packard describes a cinema that flashes ice cream ads onto the screen during regular showings of film.
The flashes are of a split second duration and as such are too short to be recognized consciously, but long enough to be absorbed unconsciously.
As a result there was an otherwise unaccountable boost in ice cream sales.
From an interview with Dr. George Horsley Smith (Rutgers psychologist and author of Motivation Research in Advertising and Marketing published by Advertising Research Foundation), Packard affirms that, "there is evidence that people can be affected by subthreshold stimulation; for example, a person can be conditioned to odors and sounds that are just outside the range of conscious awareness".
Packer, S.B. (1984). The effect of subliminally stimulating fantasies aimed at gratifying symbiotic and sanctioning aggressive strivings on assertiveness difficulties in women. New York University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 45 (1-B), p. 361. ISSN: 0419-4209.
Pajurkova-Flannery, E.M. (1979). Subliminal perception in the context of functional hemispheric asymmetries. University of Windsor, Canada. Dissertation Abstracts International, 40 (4-B), p. 1870.
Eva Pajurkova-Flannery studied perceptual defence and the effects of subliminal stimuli upon subsequent verbal behavior in the context of functional hemispheric asymmetries and hemisphericity of the subjects.
The hypotheses put forward were; 1) that the subjects would demonstrate perceptual defence for words flashed into their left visual field (LVF) by recognizing significantly fewer anxiety words than neutral words. 2) no such effects would be seen for their right visual field (RVF). 3) the magnitude of perceptual defence would vary in relation to the hemisphericity of the subjects, and 4) that the presumably anxiety-arousing verbal stimuli not recognized by the subjects during unilateral tachistopic presentations (perceptual defence) would, under some conditions, influence the subject's subsequent interpretation of repetitive ambiguous auditory verbal stimuli.
The subjects were divided according to those who showed at least 75% of their lateral eye movements to the right, and those who showed 75% of their lateral eye movements to the left.
Perceptual defence was demonstrated as predicted.
The results were discussed in context of the current neurophysiological evidence, which suggests that the right hemisphere and the inhibition of neuronal transmission across the cerebral commissures may be involved in the mechanisms underlying perceptual defence, repression and certain unconscious processes.
A dichotic verbal transformation task (DVT) was employed before and after the tachistopic procedure in order to explore the effects of subliminal stimuli upon the subjects' subsequent interpretation of repetitive ambiguous auditory verbal stimuli.
The results showed that the DVT pre-test reports differed significantly from the DVT post-test reports as a function of the tachistopically presented anxiety-producing stimuli which were not recognized by the subjects during the tachistopic experiment.
Palmatier, J.R. (1981). The effects of subliminal stimulation of symbiotic fantasies on the behavior therapy treatment of smoking. University of Montana. Dissertation Abstracts International, 41 (7-B), pp 2774-2775.
Palmatier, J.R. & Bornstein, P.H. (1980). Effects of subliminal stimulation of symbiotic merging fantasies on behavioral treatment of smokers. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 168 (12), pp 715-720. ISSN: 0022-3018.
Jay Palmatier and Bornstein performed this study in order to enhance the efficacy of a behavior therapy approach to smoking cessation through use of the subliminal psychodynamic activation method.
The subjects in both experimental and control groups received four presentations of a tachistoscopic subliminal message separated by a three-second presentation of a blank field.
The experimental group was exposed to the message "mommy and I are one" while the control group was exposed to the neutral message "people are walking."
A pilot study had verified that no one could recognize the content of the messages and fewer than 5 percent could discriminate between the two stimuli.
The results showed a significant decrease in smoking behavior for the subjects exposed to subliminal stimuli over a 21-day period.
The results were interpreted as evidence for a transference phenomena explanation for the effectiveness of the behavioral treatment program.
Palumbo, R. & Gillman, I. (1984). Effects of subliminal activation of oedipal fantasies on competitive performance: a replication and extension. Hofstra University. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 172 (12), pp 733-741. ISSN: 0022-3018.
Robert Palumbo and Irene Gillman conducted a subliminal psychodynamic activation experiment to test the effects of 5 subliminal stimuli on dart-throwing performance.
The stimuli consisted of the following messages, each accompanied by a congruent picture; a) "beating dad is ok", b) "beating dad is wrong", c) "beating him is wrong", d) "beating him is wrong", and e) "people are walking".
The first 2 stimuli were intended to activate competitive motives within the context of the Oedipus complex; the next 2, competitive motives outside that context; and the last message was intended as a control stimulus.
The results showed that the stimulus "beating dad is ok" led to greater dart-throwing accuracy than each of the other 4 conditions, which, in turn, did not differ from each other.
This finding replicates a result reported by L.H. Silverman et al (1978) and is in keeping with the formulation that the activation of oedipal motives can affect competitive performance.
Parker, K.A. (1978). The effects of subliminal merging stimuli on the academic performance of college students. Doctoral Dissertation, New York University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 38 (12-B), p. 6168.
Parker, K.A. (1982). Effects of subliminal symbiotic stimulation on academic performance: Further evidence on the adaptation-enhancing effects of oneness fantasies. University of California-Los Angeles Medical Center, Harbor Campus, Torrance. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 29 (1), pp 19-28. ISSN: 0022-0167.
In this study, Kenneth Parker demonstrated that subliminal messages improved academic performance using Silverman's psychodynamic activation technique.
The subjects were college students, and in addition to normal instruction, they received subliminal stimulation before three out of five lectures each week, as well as before and after a 10-minute counseling session with the experimenter.
The subjects were divided into three groups, each group receiving one of the following messages; 1) "mommy and I are one", 2) "my prof and I are one", and 3) "people are walking".
The main dependent variable was the final examination grade received by each student.
Results indicated that both experimental groups earned significantly higher grades than the control group.
It was concluded that the stimulation of oneness fantasies had an adaptation-enhancing effect on behavior.
Patton, C.J. (1988). Bulimia and depression: a subliminal psychodynamic activation investigation. Dissertation Abstracts International, 48 (10-B), p. 3118.
Paul, I.H. & Fisher, C. (1959). Subliminal visual stimulation: A study of its influence on subsequent images and dreams. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 129, pp 315-340.
Pfanner, D.A. (1983). Sensitivity to subliminal stimulation: An investigation of subject variables and conditions affecting psychodynamic and derivative recovery response. New York University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 43 (11-B), p. 3739. ISSN: 0419-4209.
Previous studies have found that; a) ceratin conditions and subjects characteristics are significant in facilitating stimulus "recovery", and b) more affect-laden stimulation produces idiosyncratic, less direct effects.
Darryle Pfanner designed this study in order to; 1) to compare two types of response to subliminal stimulation, :recovery" and "psychodynamic", 2) to compare two types of subliminal induction methods, tachistopic and low-illumination, and 3) to investigate three subject variables that were hypothesized to have bearing on psychodynamic or recovery responses: ego permissiveness, right hemispheres activation preference, and depressive manifestations.
The subjects were divided into two groups for induction method, and were exposed to either control, aggressive or "symbiotic" messages.
The results showed differences between the two induction methods.
Whilst the low-illumination group showed the expected responses, apparent experiment-artifact effects were found for the tachistopic group.
Response to the symbiotic stimulus on psychodynamic measure bore no relationship to response on the recovery measure, and psychodynamic response to the aggressive stimulus was directly related to recovery response to the aggressive stimulus.
Philpott, A. & Wilding, J. (1979). Semantic inference from subliminal stimuli in a dichoptic viewing situation. University of London, University College Ergonomics Unit, England. British Journal of Psychology, 70 (4), pp 559-563. ISSN: 0007-1269.
Adrian Philpott and John Wilding conducted these two experiments in order to test the effects of subliminal stimuli.
In experiment 1, the subjects were asked to name words shapes or colors presented to one eye while subliminal words or shapes were presented to the other eye.
The results showed that the subliminal presentation slowed the responses when they had the same name as the stimulus to be named or a closely related name, as compared with nonsense words (random letter strings) or blank cards.
This result was replicated in the second experiment.
In this second experiment, unrelated words were included with the subliminal stimuli.
For the trials with unrelated words, the response speeds were midway between those for trials with blank cards or nonsense words as the subliminal stimuli and trials with same name or a closely related name as the subliminal stimuli.
The results imply that subliminal stimuli related in meaning compete for common analyzing mechanisms.
Poloway, M.D. (1984). Experimental investigation of the psychoanalytic theory of heroin addiction using the subliminal psychodynamic activation method. California School of Professional Psychology, San Diego. Dissertation Abstracts International, 45 (4-B), p. 1295. ISSN: 0419-4209.
Mark Poloway performed this study in order to investigate experimentally; 1) the validity of the psychoanalytic theory of heroin addict personality, and 2) subliminal psychodynamic activation as a technique for testing psychoanalytic theory.
It was predicted that a subliminal stimulus triggering unconscious oral rage towards mother would increase the addict's defenses against these unconscious affects, causing the reduction of hostile attitudes overtly expressed to mother.
The subjects were assigned to one of four treatments; 1) "hate mommy", 2) "love mommy" 3) "hate daddy", or 4) "love daddy".
Treatment 2, 3 and 4 were all control conditions.
The results showed that the various subliminal treatments had virtually no differential impact on subjects.
The findings suggest that the positive findings from past subliminal psychodynamic experiments could be due to inefficient controls procedures.
Porterfield, A.L. (1984). The effects of subliminal aggressive and "merging" stimuli on the cognitive function of schizophrenics. A failure of Silverman's subliminal activation. University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. Dissertation Abstracts International, 45 (1-B), pp 362-363. ISSN: 0419-4209.
Porterfield, A.L. (1985). Comments on three recent subliminal psychodynamic activation investigations: Reply to Silverman. Oberlin College. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 94 (4), pp 645-646. ISSN: 0021-843X.
Albert Porterfield argues that, in defending his nonverbal pathology measure against the claim that it lacks demonstrated validity, L.H. Silverman painted a misleading picture of its face validity.
Porterfield presents a correction to that picture.
In addition, the author defends the impact of the findings by himself and S.L. Golding on subliminal psychodynamic activation explanations of schizophrenic thought disorder, despite the absence of a nonverbal pathology measure.
Porterfield, A. & Golding, S.L. (1985). Failure to find an effect of subliminal psychodynamic activation upon cognitive measures of pathology in schizophrenia. Oberlin College. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 94 (4), pp 630-639. ISSN: 0021-843X.
Albert Porterfield and Stephen Golding replicated the work of L.H. Silverman et al., in order to find an effect of subliminal psychodynamic activation upon cognitive measures of pathology in schizophrenia.
The subjects were exposed to an aggressive, a merging and a meaningless lexical stimulus in a within-S design.
The dependent variables were inkblot thought pathology and form quality, as measured on Rorschach and Holtzman Inkblot Technique Cards, and performance on the interference task of the Stroop Color-Word Test.
The analyses of variance, which was conducted on simple post-stimulation scores, rather than on unreliable change scores, showed no effect of the stimulus content.
The predicted interactions between stimulus content, subjects' self-object differentiation and temporal position of the assessment tasks did not emerge.
The findings do not support Silverman's hypothesis that subliminal tachistoscopic presentations of stimuli with aggressive content temporarily increase thinking disorder in schizophrenics.
Powell, R.C. (1979). The "subliminal" versus the "subconscious" in the American acceptance of psychoanalysis, 1906-1910. Journal of Historical Behavioral Science, 15 (2), pp 155-165. ISSN: 0022-5061.
Powell states that, as far as Frederic W.H. Myers' conceptions of subliminal were spread by the Boston-based Emmanuel movement for medically supervised religious psychotherapy, the movement probably did more to help than to hinder American acceptance of Freudian ideas.
Pushkash, M. (1981). Effect of the content of visually presented subliminal stimulation on semantic and figural learning task performances. Marquette University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 41( 12-A, part 1), p. 5036. ISSN: 0419-4209.
Mark Pushkash conducted this study in order to; a) test the effects of subliminal stimulation on performance scores, b) test for any interaction between subliminal and supraliminal task, and c) test the effects of practice on performance.
The subjects were presented with subliminal stimuli of varied content and supraliminal paired associate lists.
From the results it was seen that performance improved with practice.
The results but did not support the hypotheses that subliminal stimuli can affect performance.
The subliminal stimuli was, however, seen to effect learning when the learning task required non-dominant hemisphere processing of semantic information.
This finding suggests that subliminal messages are processed in the non-dominant hemisphere.
Rao, P.K. & Rao, K.R. (1982). Two studies of ESP and subliminal perception. Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, India. Journal of Parapsychology, 46 (3), pp 185-207. ISSN: 0022-3387.
Two studies were conducted in order to examine the relationship between subliminal perception (SP) scores and ESP scores.
Study 1 was designed to control for the differential effect in the event that the SP and ESP scores correlated negatively.
The results were at chance.
In study 2, the SP and ESP scores of 2 groups of subjects were compared.
The subjects in the experimental group practiced transcendental meditation (TM) prior to testing.
The results of the experimental group only gave a significant positive correlation between SP and ESP scores.
The psi-hitters and psi-missers in the experimental group differed significantly in their SP scores; high- and low-SP scores differed significantly in their ESP scores.
A comparison of the SP and ESP scores of experimental and control groups gave evidence that the experimental group did better than the control group on the SP task only.
Subjects in the experimental group, who obtained more SP hits than the group mean, obtained significantly more ESP hits than the high-SP Subjects in the control groups.
The results indicate that the relation between SP and ESP may depend on the strength or graduation of the subliminal signals and the state of the individual.
Reaves, L. (1984). Subliminal seduction. American Bar Association Journal, 70.
Rees, W.J. (1971). On the terms "subliminal perception" and "subception". Leeds University, England. British Journal of Psychology, 62 (4), pp 501-504. ISSN: 0007-1269.
Rees argues that it is necessary to distinguish between a developmental and an analytic use of the terms subliminal perception and subception,
It is important to recognize that in the prevailing analytical use, subliminal perception does not designate a form of perception but a form of epiperception.
In light of these considerations, Rees believes that it is possible to disperse some of the confusions attending these terms.
Reid, L.N., Lane, W.R., Wenthe, L.S. & Smith, O.W. (1985). Creative strategies in highly creative domestic and international television advertising. International Journal of Advertising (UK), 1 (1), pp 11-18. ISSN: 0261-9903.
Leonard Reid, Ronald Lane, Lela Wenthe and Otto Smith conducted a study to assess whether the creative strategies used by domestic television commercials differ from those used by international TV commercials.
Amongst the results obtained, it was found that international commercials used command strategies and subliminal oriented strategies more frequently than did domestic commercials.
Richardson, M.V. (1981). The effects of subliminal implantation in written materialon the decision-making process. University of Arkansas. Dissertation Abstracts International, 42 (6-A), p. 2592. ISSN: 0419-4209.
Maurine Richardson performed this study in order to investigate the effect of subliminal implantation on the decision-making process.
Specific areas covered were; 1) the effect of the implant on the decision of a subject's choice of reading passages, 2) the effect of the positive implanted stimulus on the choice in a positive direction, 3) the effect of the negative implanted stimulus on the choice in a negative direction, and 4) the effect of age, sex, college, academic discipline, academic classification, and/or national origin on the responses to the questionnaire.
The subjects were chosen from students of a predominantly reading-orientated course.
The implants were, "select" and "do not select".
The reading activity included reading subliminally implanted passages.
Based on the results obtained, it was concluded that; a) females were more influenced by the "select" implant than the males, b) caucasian females were most influenced by the "select" implant, c) freshman females were the easiest to influence, d) the significant differences between American Indian males and the Caucasian-Black group may have indicated a cultural difference, and e) physical maturity was a deterrent to the influence of the subliminal implantation.
Robertson, S.R. (1983). The effect of subliminal merging stimuli on field dependence. New York University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 43 (11-B), p. 3741. ISSN: 0419-4209.
Robles, R., Smith, R., Carver, C.S. & Wellens, A.R. (1987). Influence of subliminal visual images on the experience of anxiety. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 13 (3), pp 399-410.
Roher, D.M. (1977). A rationality standard for the first amendment. Paper presented to the Annual Meeting of the Eastern Communication Association (New York City, March 24-26, 1977).
This discussion summarizes the general principles that may be applied in determining the limits of free expression and proposes new criteria based on libertarian values.
It is asserted that all advocacy warrants unqualified protection, unless it is presented in such a context that the listener does not have an opportunity to decide rationally whether or not to heed the speaker's appeal.
Conditions to which this standard might be applied include mind control and subliminal advertising.
Roney-Dougal, S. (1981). The interface between psi and subliminal perception. University of Surrey, Guildford, England. Parapsychology Review, 12 (4), pp 12-18. ISSN: 0031-1804.
Serena Roney-Dougal discusses recent research on the comparison of the perceptive, cognitive, and affective and personality effects of psi vs. subliminal stimuli.
At the cognitive level, there is no difference in either the amount or form of awareness of the 2 phenomena.
Psi, subliminal stimuli and supraliminal stimuli are considered to form a continuum.
Personality correlates are identical, and research suggests that there may be an effective response without a cognitive one.
It is concluded that theoretical and experimental comparisons of psi with subliminal perception reveal considerable similarities in the way both forms of extremely low-level information perception are revealed in the consciousness and behavioral components of individuals.
Roney-Dougal, S.M. (1986). Subliminal and psi perception: a review of the literature. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 53 (805), pp 405-434.
Roney- Dougal, S.M. (1987). A comparison of psi and subliminal perception: exploratory and follow-up studies. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 81 (2), pp 141-181.
Rose, C. (1985). Accelerated Learning. Topaz Publishing Ltd., Buckinghamshire, England.
Colin Rose examines ways to increase the brain's ability to learn.
Material is presented in such a way that it is absorbed readily by both the left and right brain and by both the subconscious and conscious mind.
The mind learns more, with less conscious effort when it is more relaxed and therefore more receptive.
Roseman, J. (1985). The role of subliminal messages and sensation-seeking in eating restraint of the obese and non obese. St. John's University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 46 (2-B), p. 659. ISSN: 0419-4209.
Ross, D.L. (1978). The effects of subliminal oedipal stimulation on competitive performance in college men. New York University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 39 (6-B), p. 3005.
Roth, N., Roscher, G. & Heine, A. (1988). Memory recall after "subliminal" stimuli: a psychophysiological analysis. Acta-Nerv-Super (Praha), 30 (2), pp 130-132.
Roufs, J.A. & Pellegrino van Stuyvenberg, J.A. (1976). Gain curve of the eye to subliminal sinusoidal modulation. Institute for Perception Research, Eindhovan, Netherlands. IPO Annual Progress Report, 11, pp 56-63.
Measured the gain vs. frequency of subliminal sinusoidal modulations by using a single-shot probe consisting of three flashes.
A bandpass-type of transfer consistent with earlier findings was found with respect to the perceptual attribute-revealing transients.
Rudolph, J.R. (1970). Selective subliminal perception relative to approach/avoidance tendencies. University of Southern California. Dissertation Abstracts International, 31 (4-A), p. 1695.
Rutstein, E.H. (1971). The effects of aggressive stimulation on suicidal patients: An experimental study of the psychoanalytical theory of suicide. New York University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 31 (12-B), p. 7611.
Eleanor Rutstein performed this study in order to test empirically the psychoanalytical theory of suicide, which states that the necessary condition for suicidal behavior is that the unconscious hatred towards the original love object becomes turned back upon the self.
It was expected that, people who had made suicide attempts would turn their aggression inward when it was unconsciously evoked.
Subjects chosen were patients who had made serious suicide attempts and comparable patients who had never attempted suicide.
During the experimental sessions the subjects were exposed to subliminal aggressive, subliminal gratification, subliminal control and supraliminal aggressive stimuli.
The stimuli all contained both a picture and a verbal message.
The two experimental stimuli used were; 1) a supra- and a subliminal presentation of a picture of a young women about to stab an older women, with the caption reading "destroy mother", (aggressive), and 2) a supra- and a subliminal presentation of a picture of a little girl being embraced by an women, with the caption reading "mommy loves me", (gratification).
The results showed an increase in depression following the subliminal aggressive stimulus in the suicidal patients, and the results were significantly higher than during both the control condition and the supraliminal aggressive condition.
The expected difference was not found when the suicidal group was compared to the control group following the subliminal aggressive stimulation.
When suicidal subjects were made aware of a drive related stimulus of which they had been unaware, their reaction changed from pathological to non-pathological.
Rutstein, E.H. & Goldberger, L. (1973). The effects of aggressive stimulation on suicidal patients. An experimental study of the psychoanalytic theory of suicide. Private practice, New York Psychoanalysis and Contemporary Science, 2, pp 157-174.
Eleanor Rutstein and Leo Goldberger studied the effects of aggressive stimulation on suicidal patients.
Ruzumna, J.S. (1969). The effect of cognitive control on responsiveness to subliminal stimulation in social situations. Wayne State University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 30 (1-B), pp 373-374.
Stephanie Ruzumna investigated the effect of cognitive controls upon sensitivity to subliminal stimuli in an ambiguous social situation.
It was hypothesized that subliminal perception necessitates sensitivity to subtle, low threshold cues in theenvironment.
It was also hypothesized that individuals who were able to avoid distracting elements and who easily incorporate new stimuli ("high" field-articulators and sharpeners) would be more responsive to elements and cues in their surrounding field.
From this it followed that these individuals would also be more responsive to low threshold or subliminal stimuli.
The results did not show the "high" field articulators and sharpeners to be more responsive to the subliminal stimuli.
A definite significant subliminal effect was also seen.
Sackheim, H.A., Packer, I.K. & Gur, R.C. (1977). Hemisphericity, cognitive set and susceptibility to subliminal perception. University of Pennsylvania. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 86 (6), pp 624-630.
Although many studies have demonstrated that subliminal stimuli influences perception and cognition, the effects have been weak and unreliable.
Harold Sackheim, Ira Packer and Ruben Gur reviewed the factors related to the magnitude of these phenomena, and hypothesized that both individual differences in hemisphericity and situational manipulations of cognitive sets are associated with the strength of the subliminal effects.
Right and left hemisphericity subjects were used.
The results revealed an interaction between hemisphericity groups and cognitive set conditions.
The right hemisphericity subjects showed a subliminal effect when their cognitive set was holistic and intuitive, whereas left hemisphericity subjects showed a subliminal effect when encouraged to think in and organized and logical manner.
Saegert, J. (1979). Another look at subliminal perception. Journal of Advertising Research, 19 (1), pp 55-57. ISSN: 0021-8499.
Joel Saegert reviews the research on subliminal perception.
In particular, the psychological research by Silverman is examined.
Although Silverman's work has demonstrated behavioral changes as a result of subliminal stimulation, critics argue that, as the subjects used were pathological, the results would not apply to "normal"people.
The practical implications of the use of subliminals in marketing are discussed.
The problem with demonstrating the marketing application empirically, is that, although the advertising is directed at large numbers of people, it is only perceived by a small subset and eventually will be responded to by those whose needs can be satisfied by the product being advertised.
Schmeidler, G.R. (1986). Subliminal perception and ESP: Order in diversity? The Journal of the American Society for Physical Research, 80 (3).
Gertrude Schmeidler found a positive correlation between ESP and subliminal perception skills.
Schmidt, J.M. (1981). The effects of subliminally presented anaclitic and introjective stimuli on normal young adults. University of Southern Mississippi. Dissertation Abstracts International, 42 (5-B), pp 2081. ISSN: 0419-4209.
Anaclitic and interojective subjects were exposed to one of three subliminal stimuli; 1) neutral control, 2) "I have lost mommy" - anaclitic, intended to activate memories and fantasies of the loss of vitally important loved one, and 3) "I have been bad" - interojective, intended to stimulate memories and fantasies of guilt, failure and worthlessness.
For both groups (anaclitic and interojective) it was hypothesized that the relevant depressive stimulus would illicit a depressive reaction, while the neutral-control and irrelevant depressive stimuli would not elicit depression.
There were no significant findings on the subjective measures of affective states or the Digit Symbol task.
For both groups, however, the relevant depressive stimulus led to significantly more cognitive measures of depression.
Under the relevant depressive stimulus condition, there were significantly more themes of guilt, fear, sadness, narcissistic loss and withdrawal, and less instances of denial-negation content in the freely associated verbal samples.
The relevant depressive stimulus elicited less pathological non-verbal behavior for the anaclitic group, while leading to a greater incidence of this variable for the interojective group.
Schurtman, R., Palmatier, J.R. & Martin, E.S. (1982). On the activation of symbiotic gratification fantasies as an aid in the treatment of alcoholics. Brooklyn VA Medical Center, NY. International Journal of the Addictions, 17 (7), pp 1157-1174. ISSN: 0020-773X.
Two groups of alcoholics, undergoing treatment, were used.
In addition to the regular treatment program, both groups received 4 subliminal exposures of a verbal message; 1) "mommy and I are one," (experimental), and 2) "people are walking," (control).
The subliminal stimuli were administered under double-blind conditions.
In keeping with the main hypothesis, the experimental subjects were rated as significantly more involved in treatment.
Among the alcoholics who were more symptomatic to begin with, the experimental message, when contrasted with the control, lowered anxiety and depression, enhanced self-concept and reduced alcohol consumption after a 3-month follow-up.
Schwartz, M. (1976). On testing hypotheses about subliminal perception: a reply to Shevrin. Psychophysiology, 13 (1), pp 27-31. ISSN 0048-5772.
Marvin Schwartz recently produced a paper in conjunction with Michael Rem (1975) in which it was reported that they could find no evidence that average evoked responses discriminate between two stimuli presented for durations that were either subliminal or supraliminal for discriminating the stimuli behaviorally.
In this paper, Schwarz argues that Shevrin's (1975) criticisms are factually and theoretically erroneous.
A reanalysis of the data, following Shevrin's suggestions, confirms the conclusions originally drawn.
Schwartz, M. & Rem, M.A. (1975). Does the average evoked response encode subliminal perception? Psychophysiology, 12 (4), pp 390-394. ISSN: 0048-5772.
Marvin Schwartz and Michael Rem attempted to replicated the work of Shevrin (1968, 1970 and 1971), where it was reported that the effects of subliminal perception are encoded in the average evoked response.
The present experiment was a more stringent test in that it; 1) collected both physiological and behavioral data in the same trials, 2) attempted to minimize criteria differences in the employment of physiological and behavioral responses, and 3) behaviorally verified conditions designed to be subliminal.
Two stimuli were presented tachistopically in a given trial, separated by 1 sec.
Over blocks of trials, exposure duration for the stimuli was 3, 7, 15 and 30 msec.
At 3-msec exposure, all subjects detected the stimuli but could not discriminate between them; discrimination increased with increasing exposure duration.
There was no exposure duration at which the average evoked response measure could discriminate between stimuli.
It was concluded that there was no evidence for either subliminal or supraliminal discrimination of stimulus content by the average evoked response.
Severance, L.J. & Dyer, F.N. (1973). Failure of subliminal word presentation to generate interference to color naming. Duke University, Durham, NC. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 101 (1), pp 186-189.
Laurence Severance and Frederick Dyer had previously performed a study which showed that the presentation of false color names delayed the speed of naming color patches.
In this study, the false color names were presented subliminally.
The results showed no significant effect on the speed of naming color patches when the subliminal stimuli were used.
Shah, P.M. (1981). The time course of temporal summation at various background luminances. City University, New York. Dissertation Abstracts International, 42 (4-B), p. 1660. ISSN: 0419-4209.
Shapiro, T. (1978). On the verification of psychoanalytic concepts by extraclinical techniques. International Journal for Psychoanalysts and Psychotherapists, 79 (7), pp 586-601. ISSN: 0091-0600.
In this article, Shapiro discusses "Unconscious Symbiotic Fantasy: A Ubiquitous Therapeutic Agent" by Lloyd Silverman, Ph.D.
He believes that extraclinical research on propositions derived from the psychoanalytic process are useful and complementary and that the rigor of statistical, reproducible experimental approaches adds strength to analytic knowledge.
However, caution is recommended in interpreting results, because each method has its own natural yield and significance.
The work of Silverman et al regarding the effects of stimulating unconscious symbiotic fantasies as inferred from clinical settings and transferring them to an experimental model, is examined from the standpoint of situational and propositional homology, adequacy of methods of verification, experimental bias and interpretation of the results.
Shevrin, H. (1973). Brain wave correlates of subliminal stimulation, unconscious attention, primary- and secondary-process thinking, and repressiveness. University of Michigan. Psychological Issues, 8 (2, Mono . 30), pp 56-87. ISSN: 0079-7359.
In a series of experiments, Howard Shevrin uses subliminal stimulation and the cortical evoked response.
It was demonstrated that a relationship exists between the electrical activity of the brain in response to a stimulus, and unconscious thought processes involving attention, perception, primary process thinking and repression.
Shevrin, H. (1975). Does the averaged evoked response encode subliminal perception? Yes. A reply to Schwartz and Rem. Psychophysiology, 12 (4), pp 395-398. ISSN: 0048-5772.
Shevrin, H. (1976). Rapaport's contribution to research: A look to the future. University of Michigan Medical Center. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 40 (3), pp 211-228.
In this article, Howard Shevrin discusses the importance of research in investigating the theoretical propositions of psychoanalytic theory and technique.
Shevrin states that the fundamental assumptions of psychoanalysis cannot be validated within the limits of the psychoanalytic process itself and that a convergence of methods from different fields is necessary.
Shevrin, H. (September 17-22, 1979). Evoked potential evidence for unconscious mental processes. A review of the literature. International Symposium on the Unconscious. Tbilissi, Georgia, USSR.
Shevrin, H. (1980, April). Glimpses of the unconscious. Psychology Today, p. 128.
Shevrin, H. (1986). Subliminal perception and dreaming. Special issue: cognition and dream research. Journal of Mind and Behavior, 7 (2-3), pp 379-395.
Shevrin, H. & Dickman, S. (1980). The psychological unconscious. A necessary assumption for all psychological theory? University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor. American Psychologist, 35 (5), pp 421-434. ISSN: 0003-066X.
Howard Shevrin and Scott Dickman have found evidence from several diverse fields of research, such as subliminal perception and cortical evoked potentials, of complex psychological processes operating outside of awareness.
Shevrin, H. & Fisher, C. (1967). Changes in the effect of a waking subliminal stimulus as a function of dreaming and nondreaming sleep. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 72 (4), pp 362-368. ISSN: 0021-843X.
Howard Shevrin and Charles Fisher attempted to determine if the presleep waking state, stages 1 & 2, could be distinguished on the basis of thought processes paralleling the psychoanalytic concept of primary- and secondary-process thinking.
A special subliminal technique was used which elicited primary- and secondary-process levels of responses to the same stimulus.
It was hypothesized that stage 1 would show more evidence of primary-process thinking, and stage 2 more secondary process-thinking.
The free associations obtained during the presleep waking state and after awakenings from sleep stages 1 & 2 supported the hypotheses.
The sleep reports or freely evoked images did not support the hypotheses.
Shevrin, H. & Fritzler, D.E. (1968). Visual evoked response correlates of the unconscious mental processes. Science, 161 (3838), pp 295-298.
Shevrin, H., & Luborsky, L. (1958). The measurement of preconscious perception in dreams and images: An investigation of the Poetzl phenomenon. Journal of Abnormal Social Psychology, 56.
Shevrin, H., Smith, W.H. & Fritzler, D.E. (1969). Repressiveness as a factor in the subliminal activation of brain and verbal responses. Journal for Nervous Mental Disorders, 149 (3), pp 261-269. ISSN: 0022-3018.
Shevrin, H., Smith, W.H. & Fritzler, D.E. (1970). Repressiveness as factor in subliminal activation of brain and verbal responses. Psychiatry Digest, 31 (7), p. 37. ISSN: 0033-2771.
Shevrin, H., Smith, W.H. & Fritzler, D.E. (1970). Subliminally stimulated brain and verbal response of twins differing in repressiveness. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 76 (1), pp 39-46.
Shevrin, H., Smith, W.H. & Fritzler, D.E. (1971). Average evoked response and verbal correlates of unconscious mental processes. Psychophysiology, 8 (2), pp 149-162. ISSN: 0048-5772.
Shevrin, H., Smith, W.H. & Hoobler, R. (1970). Direct measurement of unconscious mental processes: Averaged evoked response and free association correlates of subliminal stimulation. Psychological Association, 5 (2), pp 543-544.
Shevrin, H., Voth, H. & Gardner, R.W. (1971). Research perspectives on treatment and diagnosis. Menninger Foundation, Topeka, Kan. Bulletin for the Menninger Clinic, 35 (6), pp 461-478.
Howard Shevrin, Harold Voth and Riley Gardner summarize a panel discussion.
The research findings presented involve; a) subliminal and supraliminal stimulation and their relationship to repression, b) autokinetic movement, its relationship to transference phenomena and to suicide, and c) cognitive personal-organizational differences.
Shield, P.H., Harrow, M. & Tucker, G. (1974). Investigation of factors related to stimulus overinclusion. Psychiatrists Quarterly, 48 (1), pp 109-116. ISSN: 0033-2720.
Shifren, I.W. (1982). The interaction between hemispheric preference and the perception of subliminal auditory and visual symbiotic gratification stimuli. St. John's University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 42 (10-B), pp 4211-4212. ISSN: 0419-4209.
Irene Shifren designed this study in order to investigate the interaction effects between hemispheric preference and subliminal auditory and visual symbiotic gratification.
The subjects were exposed to the experimental stimulus "my lover and I are one" and the control stimulus "people are walking".
Both stimuli were presented through both visual and auditory modes.
The subjects were tested on baseline and critical measures of state anxiety, reaction time and word recognition.
Three hypotheses were tested; 1) that the subjects shown the symbiotic gratification message would show decreased anxiety and improvement on measures of reaction time. 2) decreased anxiety and improvement on measures of reaction time and word recognition would result from both visual and auditory modes of presentation. 3) the visual mode of presentation would have a greater effect on rights and that the auditory effect would have a greater effect on lefts.
Negative results were found for all three hypotheses.
Methodological issues are discussed with suggestions for further studies.
Silbert, J. (1982). Human symbiosis, the holding environment and schizophrenia: An experimental study. New York University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 43 (2-B), p. 535. ISSN: 0419-4209.
Joel Silbert used Silverman's technique of "subliminal psychodynamic activation" by tachistopic presentation of dynamically relevant visual stimuli in order to; 1) replicate the findings that the unconscious fantasy "mommy and I are one" reduces pathological thinking and behavior, and low self-esteem, in relatively differentiated schizophrenic men, 2) test whether this symbiotic fantasy is effective because of its evocation of fantasies of the "holding environment", 3) compare the efficacy of solely verbal stimuli with verbal + pictorial stimuli, 4) explore the relevance of schizophrenics' high levels of self-touching during discourse to the "holding environment" formulation.
The subjects were assigned to one of eight experimental groups, and were exposed to the following subliminal stimuli; 1) "mommy and I are one", 2) "mommy and I are all", 3) "I make mommy whole", and 4) "mommy holds me safely".
Four groups received the verbal message with pictorial accompaniment, the other four received only the verbal message.
The "mommy and I are one" message was the only one to produce significant reductions in pathology.
Self-esteem increased with "mommy and I are one" and across all eight groups.
The original findings are therefore replicated, but its relationship to aspects of the holding environment were not supported.
Silverman, L.H. (1966). A technique for the study of psychodynamic relationships: The effects of subliminally presented aggressive stimuli on the production of pathological thinking in a schizophrenic population. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 30, (2), pp 103 131. ISSN: DHW7-0000.
Silverman, L.H. (1968). Further comments on matters relevant to investigations of subliminal phenomena: A reply. New York University. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 27 (3, part 2), pp 1343-1350.
Lloyd Silverman replies to the M. Wiener and P. Kleespies' rejoinder to the article by Silverman & Spiro on "The partial cue controversy and matters relevant to investigations of subliminal phenomena".
The discussion focuses on; 1) the data offered by Silverman & Spiro in support of the subliminal model, 2) the data presented by Guthrie and Wiener in support of the partial cue model, and 3) the evidence cited by Silverman & Spiro bearing on two subject variables relevant to the question of whether a subliminal effect can be demonstrated.
Silverman, L.H. (1970). Further experimental studies of dynamic propositions in psychoanalysis. On the function and meaning of regressive thinking. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 18 (1), pp 102-124. ISSN: 0003-0651.
Lloyd Silverman conducted a series of experiments in order to provide an understanding of regressive thinking.
The clinical and theoretical implications of the results are discussed.
Silverman, L.H. (1971). An experimental technique for the study of unconscious conflict. New York Veterans Administration Hospital. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 44 (1), pp 17-25.
Lloyd Silverman discusses a series of studies using subliminal stimuli with schizophrenic patients.
Ten experiments showed an increased intensity in pathological thinking, pathological nonverbal behavior, or both, but usually as a delayed effect.
Long term patients showed stronger effects.
Hospital employees "primed" for aggression produced pathological manifestations as well
Supraliminal techniques have been less effective at elucidating dynamic interplay between underlying conflict and manifest behavior.
Silverman, L.H. (1972). Drive stimulation and psychopathology: On the conditions under which drive-related external events evoke pathological reactions. New York University. Psychoanalysis & Contemporary Science, 1, pp 306-326.
Lloyd Silverman discussed environmental conditions which precipitate psychopathological reactions by stimulating a threatening drive.
Also reviewed are laboratory and clinical investigations of the evocation of pathological defenses by subliminal and supraliminal presentations of drive-related stimuli.
It was found that expression of conflict-producing drives which are activated by external stimuli will be blocked when; 1) the drive relevance of the stimulus is hidden, 2) when the situation prohibits drive expression, or 3) when unconscious meanings make drive expression taboo. It is postulated that 4 conditions are necessary for external stimuli to evoke pathological defenses; a) the drive aroused must be unacceptable to the individual, b) ego-strength must be insufficient for the individual to handle drive adaptively, c) a minimal level of drive derivatives must be available to consciousness, and d) the situation in which the stimuli appear must discourage direct drive expression.
Silverman, L.H. (1975). An experimental method for the study of unconscious conflict: A progress report. British Journal of Psychology, pp 291-298.
Silverman, L.H. (1975). On the role of laboratory experiments in the development of the clinical theory of psychoanalysis: Data on the subliminal activation of aggressive and merging wishes in schizophrenics. VA Hospital, New York, NY. International Review of Psycho-Analysis, 2( 1), 46-64.
Lloyd Silverman discusses the role of laboratory experiments in the development of the clinical theory of psychoanalysis.
He believes that the experimental and the clinical approaches compliment each other as both have limitations that can be offset by the other's strengths.
Silverman cites a series of experiments which relate to the role of conflict over aggression in schizophrenia, and to the schizophrenic's tendency to merge self and object representations.
From the examples given it is possible to see the kinds of experimental techniques which are the most promising for investigating psychodynamic relationships.
Silverman, L.H. (1975). An experimental method for the study of unconscious conflict: A progress report. New York VA Hospital, New York. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 48 (4), pp 291-298. ISSN: 0007-1129.
In this report, Lloyd Silverman reviews research in which psychodynamic activation has been used to investigate the relationship between psychopathology and conflict over unconscious libidinal and aggressive wishes.
Results show that the subliminal stimuli designed to stir aggressive wishes in schizophrenics lead to intensification of oral-aggressive forms of primary process ego pathology.
It was also found the subliminal content designed to; 1) stimulate aggressive wishes in depressed individuals intensified their depressive feelings, 2) evoke conflict over incestuous feelings in homosexuals increases their homosexuality and decreases their heterosexual feelings, 3) evoke conflict over anal wishes in stutters increases their stuttering.
Furthermore, unconscious conflict is temporarily resolved by the subliminal presentation of content designed to activate a fantasy of symbiotic gratification.
Silverman, L.H. (1976). Psychoanalytic theory: "The reports of my death are greatly exaggerated. VA Hospital and Research Center, New York, NY. " American Psychologist, 31 (9), pp 621-637.
In this article, Lloyd Silverman discusses two ongoing research programs, which were designed to study the relationship between psychopathology and unconscious libidinal and aggressive wishes.
In study 1, it was hypothesized that the tachistoscopic presentation of a wish-related stimulus would affect the level of manifest psychopathology.
This hypothesis was supported.
In study 2, there was a decrease in primary process ego pathology in schizophrenics when conflict was reduced by activating a fantasy of symbiotic gratification.
Overall the results illustrate a theory validation by converging operations and pose a substantive challenge to critics of psychoanalytic theory.
Silverman, L.H. (1978). Effect of subliminal stimulation of symbiotic fantasies on behavior modification treatment of obesity. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46.
Silverman, L.H. ((1978). Further comments on matters relevant to investigations of subliminal phenomena: A reply. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 27 (3), pp 1343-1350.
Silverman, L.H. (1978/79). Unconscious symbiotic fantasy: A ubiquitous therapeutic agent. Internal Journal of Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy, pp 562-585.
Silverman, L.H. (1979). Two unconscious fantasies as mediators of successful psychotherapy. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 16, (2), pp 215-228.
Silverman, L.H. (1979). The unconscious fantasy as therapeutic agent in psychoanalytic treatment. Journal of American Academy of Psychoanalysts, 7 (2), pp 189-218. ISSN: 0090-3604.
Silverman, L.H. (1980). A comprehensive report of studies using the subliminal psychodynamic activation method. Lund University. Psychological Research Bulletin, 20 (3). ISSN: 0348-3673.
In this report, Lloyd Silverman reviewed more than 60 studies which, using the subliminal psychodynamic activation method, provide support for the method.
The varied findings of these experiments are explained.
Silverman, L.H. (1982a). A comment on two subliminal psychodynamic activation studies. New York University, New York Veterans Administration Regional Office & Research Center for Mental Health. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 91 (2), pp 126-130. ISSN: 0021-843X.
Lloyd Silverman discusses experiments reported by T.J. Condon & G.J. Allen and also by K. Heilbrun, where the subliminal psychodynamic activation method yielded negative results.
Silverman discusses the number of reports by other investigators of similar experiments that did yield positive results.
Silverman, L.H. (1982b). Rejoinder to Allen and Condon's and Heilbrun's replies. New York University, New York Veterans Administration Regional Office & Research Center for Mental Health. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 91 (2), pp 136-138. ISSN: 0021-843X.
Silverman, L.H. (1983). The Search For Oneness. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Lloyd Silverman has developed the theory psychodynamic activation, which uses symbiotic fantasies for alleviating anxiety in schizophrenics.
From the many experiments Silverman has either performed himself or has directed, he has shown that by presenting emotionally charged words or messages subliminally, this can trigger unconscious thoughts and feelings, which in turn can alter behavior.
From Silverman's research, he formulated the idea that "wish related subliminal stimuli and the power to activate psychodynamic processes - processes in which unconscious wishes, fantasies, anxieties and defense operations - affect overt behavior".
Silverman, L.H. (1985). Comments on three recent subliminal psychodynamic activation investigations. New York University. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 94 (4), pp 640-643. ISSN: 0021-843X.
Silverman, L.H. (1985). Comments on three recent subliminal psychodynamic activation investigations: rejoinder to Oliver and Burkham and to Porterfield. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 94 (4), pp 647-648. ISSN: 0021-843X.
Lloyd Silverman replies to comments regarding his research on psychodynamic activation.
Silverman, L.H. (1985). Research on psychoanalytic psychodynamic propositions. Special issue: current thinking in psychoanalysis. New York University. Clinical Psychology Review, 5 (3), pp 247-257. ISSN: 0272-7358.
Lloyd Silverman discusses the psychodynamic activation method.
Verbal and/or pictorial stimuli, which either relate to unconscious wishes, fears or fantasies, or which are neutral, are presented to the subjects.
Major findings include enhanced adaptive behavior after the subliminal exposure to the "Mommy and I are one" message, and an intensification of symptoms in clinical groups such as schizophrenics after exposure to stimuli aimed at stirring up unconscious conflicts.
Silverman, L.H., Bronstein, A. & Mendelsohn, E. (1976). The further use of the subliminal psychodynamic activation method for the experimental study of the clinical theory of psychoanalysis: On the specificity of the relationship between symptoms and the unconscious. VA Hospital, New York, NY. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research & Practice, 13 (1), pp 2-16. ISSN: 0478-7013.
Lloyd Silverman, Abbot Bronstein and Eric Mendelsohn performed four experiments in order to test the hypothesis that the subliminal presentation of wish-related stimuli would intensify the psychopathology of various kinds.
In experiments 1 and 2, schizophrenic and homosexual subjects were presented with aggressive, incestuous or neutral control stimuli.
In experiments 3, stutterers were presented with incestuous, analitious and neutral control stimuli.
In experiment 4, depressed subjects were exposed to aggressive, analitious and neutral control stimuli.
The results obtained supported the hypothesis.
It was concluded that there is a specificity of relationships between symptoms and conflictual wishes.
Silverman, L.H. & Candell, P. (1970). On the relationship between aggressive activation, symbiotic merging, intactness of body boundaries, and manifest pathology in schizophrenics. Journal for Nervous Mental Disorders, 150 (5), pp 387-399.
Silverman, L.H., Candell, P., Pettit, T.F. & Blum, F.A. (1971). Further data on effects of aggressive activation and symbiotic merging on ego functioning of schizophrenics. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 32, pp 93-94.
Silverman, L.H., Frank, S.G. & Dachinger, P. (1974). A psychoanalytic reinterpretation of the effectiveness of systematic desensitization: Experimental data bearing on the role of merging fantasies. Veterans Administration Hospital, New York, NY. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 83 (3), pp 313-318.
Subjects with insect phobia were exposed to the tachistoscopic subliminal exposure of the verbal stimulus "mommy and I are one" during the visualization part of systematic desensitization, whenever the subject's anxiety level rose above a specified level.
The control group were exposed to the same procedure except that a neutral stimulus ("people walking") was used.
The experimental group manifested significantly more improvement than the controls.
The results support the proposition that part of the effectiveness of systematic desensitization resides in its activating unconscious merging fantasies.
Silverman, L.H. & Goldberger, A.M. (1966). A further study in the effects of subliminal aggressive stimulation on thinking. Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases, 143 (6), pp 463-472. ISSN: 0022-3018.
Lloyd Silverman and Arthur Goldberger used four groups of psychotic subjects, and exposed them to tachistoscopic pictorial stimuli which were; 1) subliminal aggressive, 2) subliminal neutral, 3) subliminal libidinal, and 4) supraliminal aggressive.
The subliminal aggressive condition; a) produced significantly more of the clinical phenomena than did the neutral subliminal condition, b) produced an increase in pathological thinking in subjects who gave independent evidence of having a relative impairment in their ability to neutralize aggression, c) gave more pathological thinking than the subliminal sexual condition or the supraliminal aggressive condition.
Silverman, L.H., Klinger, J., Lustbader, L., Farrel, J. & Martin. A.D. (1972). The effects of subliminal drive stimulation on the speech of stutterers. Veterans Administration Hospital, New York, NY. Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases, 155 (1), pp 14-21. ISSN: 0022-3018.
A study was performed to test the hypothesis that adolescent stutterers would show increased speech impairment after the subliminal pictorial presentation of anal and oral-aggressive themes.
The results showed that speech impairment increased after the oral-aggressive and the anal themes for a paraphrasing task.
Silverman, L.H., Kwawer, J.S., Wolitzky, C. & Coron, M. (1973). An experimental study of aspects of psychoanalytic theory of male homosexuality. Veterans Administration Hospital, New York, NY. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 82 (1), pp 178-88.
Lloyd Silverman, Jay Kwawer, Carol Wolitzky and Mark Coron performed this experiment in order to test the psychoanalytic dynamic propositions using the subliminal exposure of drive-related stimuli.
It was hypothesized that male homosexuals would show an intensification of homosexual-related reactions after the subliminal presentation of an "incest stimulus", and a decrease in such reactions after the subliminal exposure of a "symbiosis stimulus".
On a "sexual feelings assessment" the incest stimulus intensified "homosexual orientation" for homosexuals.
On a Rorschach-type task, the symbiosis condition led to a decrease in a "threat index".
Neither of these results were found for heterosexuals.
The results from this study lend support to; 1) psychoanalytic propositions linking homosexuality in males to conflict over incestuous wishes, and 2) the proposition that the stimulation of a fantasy of symbiotic gratification has a "therapeutic effect" on individuals in various psychiatric syndrome groupings.
Silverman, L.H. & Lachmann, F.M. (1985). The therapeutic properties of unconscious oneness fantasies: Evidence and treatment implications. New York University. Contemporary Psychoanalysis, 21 (1), pp 91-115. ISSN: 0010-7530.
In this article, Lloyd Silverman and Frank Lachmann discuss the research evidence that supports the thesis that unconscious oneness fantasies can enhance adaptation.
The implications of this thesis for the conduct of psychoanalytic treatment are examined.
The subliminal psychodymanic activation research method, which was developed by Silverman, is outlined, and the limitations of evidence from psychoanalytic treatment explored.
Studies of oneness fantasies in schizophrenic and nonpsychotic populations are also described.
Silverman, L.H., Lachmann, F.M. & Milich, R.H. (1984). Unconscious oneness fantasies: Experimental findings and implications for treatment. New York University. International Forum for Psychoanalysis, 1 (2), pp 107-152. ISSN: 0738-8217.
Lloyd Silverman, Frank Lachmann and Robert Milich propose that fantasies of oneness,in which self and object or other are merged, can enhance adaptation (for example, for schizophrenics) if a sense of self can simultaneously be preserved.
This theory is supported by the experimental research which has been performed on schizophrenics using subliminal psychodynamic activation.
The research which has been carried out in this field has shown that subliminal stimuli can trigger as well as dissipate pathology or adaptation, depending on the psychodynamic content.
Previous experiments have shown that the success of the symbiotic fantasy in ameliorating the schizophrenic's symptoms depends on the degree to which the schizophrenic was differentiated.
It is concluded that the attainment of oneness may be the goal of attaining separateness, and that oneness gratifications and psychological separateness are not mutually exclusive.
Silverman, L.H., Lachmann, F.M. & Milich, R.H. (1984). In response. New York University. International Forum for Psychoanalysis, 1 (2), pp 205-217. ISSN: 0738-8217.
Lloyd Silverman, Frank Lachmann and Robert Milich respond to comments by P.L. Giovacchini, A.P. Morrison, D.S. Werman and R.F. Bornstein and J.M. Masling on the their work on the effects of subliminal messages of oneness on the psychopathology of clients in analysis.
Particular issue addressed are; 1) the types and consequence of oneness fantasies, 2) interpretation of findings, 3) the need to elucidate the mental processes that mediate the adaptive change in behavior following the subliminal messages, and 4) the function of therapist empathy.
Silverman, L.H., Levinson, P., Mendelsohn, E., Ungaro, R. & Bronstein, A. (1975). A clinical application of subliminal psychodynamic activation. On the stimulation of symbiotic fantasies as an adjunct in the treatment of hospitalized schizophrenics. Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases, 161, pp 379-392. ISSN: 0022-3018.
The aim of this study was to utilize the subliminal psychodynamic activation method as an aid in the treatment of hospitalized schizophrenics.
Also under investigation was whether the subliminal activation of a fantasy of symbiotic gratification would produce an increment in the degree of improvement that schizophrenics manifested as a results of hospitalization.
The subjects were divided into two groups equated for intelligence, pathology level and other pertinent variables.
Group one was tachistoscopically exposed to the stimulus "mommy and I are one", while the other group, serving as the control, were exposed to "people are walking".
Each group was subdivided into two in order to investigate the effects of; 1) aggressive expression consisting of an attempt to elicit specifically aggressive fantasies in the fantasy expression task, 2) self-focusing, designed to strengthen self-boundaries.
The results indicate that; 1) the subliminal symbiotic stimulation affected the ego impairment measures, and 2) the self-focusing intervention affected the patients on a measure of self-object differentiation.
It was concluded that the subliminal symbiotic stimulation together with self-focusing may enhance the therapeutic value of hospitalization for schizophrenics.
Silverman, L.H., Martin, A., Ungaro, R. & Mendelsohn, E. (1978). Effect of subliminal stimulation of symbiotic fantasies on behavior modification treatment of obesity. New York University, Research Center for Mental Health. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46 (3), pp 432-441. ISSN: 0022-006X.
Lloyd Silverman, April Martin, Roseann Ungaro & Eric Mendelsohn performed two studies in which obese subjects were treated in a behavior modification program for overeating.
Study 1 lasted 8 weeks, study 2, 12 weeks.
In both studies, half of the subjects were exposed to the verbal subliminal stimulus "mommy and I are one" while the other half were exposed to a control message.
In both studies, the symbiotic message gave evidence of enhancing weight loss, although the differences between groups only attained significance during the follow-up period.
The results, in conjunction with previous studies, support the proposition that subliminal stimulation of symbiotic fantasies can enhance the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions of various kinds.
Silverman, L.H. & Mendelsohn, E. (1982). Effects of stimulating psychodynamically relevant unconscious fantasies on schizophrenic pathology. Schizophrenic Bulletin, pp 532-547.
Silverman, L.H., Ross, D., Adler, J. & Lustig, D. (1978). Simple research paradigm for demonstrating subliminal psychodynamic activation: Effects of oedipal stimuli on dart-throwing accuracy in college males. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 87 (8), pp 341-357. ISSN: 0021-843X.
Lloyd Silverman, David Ross, John Adler and David Lustig performed four experiments in order to ascertain the effects of "subliminal psychodynamic activation" on dart-throwing accuracy.
Each experimental condition consisted of a 4-msec exposure of a verbal message and a congruous picture.
The first two experiments effects were obtained using stimuli that sanctioned the idea of defeating father in competition (enhancing accuracy), and one that condemned the idea (impeding accuracy).
In experiment 3, the only substantive difference was in the illumination levels of the tachistoscopic fields, but no effects were found.
Experiment 4 was therefore carried out to test for the relevance of the illumination variables.
The results show that clear effects are obtained at low illumination levels, whereas no effects were obtained at a high level.
Silverman, L.H. & Silverman, D.K. (1964). A clinical-experimental approach to the study of subliminal stimulation. Journal of Abnormal Social Psychology, 69 (2).
Silverman, L.H. & Silverman, S.E. (1967). The effects of subliminally presented drive stimuli on the cognitive functioning of schizophrenics. Journal of Projective Techniques and Personality Assessment, 31 (1), pp 78-85. ISSN: 0091-651X.
Silverman, L.H. & Spiro, R.H. (1967). Further investigations of the effects of subliminal aggressive stimulation on the ego functioning of schizophrenics. Journal of Consultant Psychology (United States), 31 (3), pp 225-233. ISSN: DHW7-0000.
Silverman L.H. & Spiro, R.H. (1967). Some comments and data on the partial cue controversy and other matters relevant to investigation of subliminal phenomena. Manhattan Veterans Administration Hospital, New York, NY. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 25 (1), pp 325-338.
Lloyd Silverman and Robert Spiro respond to an article by G. Guthrie and M. Wiener.
This article justifies the following conclusions; 1) from a number of recent studies of subliminal phenomena, the most parsimonious explanation for positive results is one implicating the subliminal registration of content and, not one relating to the structural cues in awareness, 2) Guthrie and Wiener's data provides little support for the view that even in the early investigation of Eagle, the subjects were responding to partial cues, and 3) Guthrie and Wiener's failure to obtain content effect in their own experiment was most likely the result of the level at which their stimuli were exposed and/or their not taking into account subject variables that are relevant to the question of whether a subliminal effects can be demonstrated.
Silverman, L.H. & Spiro, R.H. (1968). The effects of subliminal, supraliminal and vocalized aggression on the ego functioning of schizophrenics. Journal of Nervous Mental Disorders, 146 (1), pp 50-61. ISSN: 0022-3018.
Silverman, L.H., Spiro, R.H., Weisberg, J.S. & Candell, P. (1969). The effects of aggressive activation and the need to merge on pathological thinking in schizophrenia. Veterans Administration Hospital, New York, NY. Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease, 148 (1), pp 39-51. ISSN: 0022-3018.
For this study the subjects were exposed to the following conditions;
1) subliminal neutral stimulation, 2) subliminal libidinal stimulation, 3) subliminal merging stimulation, 4) subliminal aggressive stimulation, and 5) subliminal aggressive stimulation preceded by manipulations designed to increase self-awareness.
The results indicate that the merging condition significantly diminished pathological thinking in those schizophrenics who experienced themselves as relatively differentiated to begin with.
Silverman, L.H. & Weinberger, J. (1985). Mommy and I are one: Implications for psychotherapy. New York University, Research Center for Mental Health. American Psychologist, 40 (12), pp 1296-1308. ISSN: 0003-066X.
Lloyd Silverman and Joel Weinberger present evidence to support the idea that there are powerful unconscious wishes for a state of oneness with "the good mother of early childhood" and that gratification of these wishes can enhance adaptation.
The subjects used in these experiments came from varied populations, including schizophrenics, neurotics, and normal students.
The results obtained show that 4-msec exposure of stimuli, intended to activate unconscious symbiotic-like fantasies (usually the words Mommy and I are one), produced ameliorative effects on different dependent variables in a variety of settings.
Silverman and Weinberg propose that the patient-therapist factors in psychotherapy owe their effectiveness partly to their having activated these symbiotic-like fantasies.
Further studies are outlined that would provide a more definitive test of this proposition.
Simley, O.A. (1931). The relation of subliminal learning. University of Wisconsin, Madison. Unpublished Dissertation.
Singh, Y. & Devi, R.M. (1976). Subliminal guessing: A communication of collegiate students. St. John's College, Agra, India. Pscho-Lingua, 6 (1-2), pp 23-28.
Yashvir Singh and Mema Devi investigated the effects of personality and sex on subliminal guessing ability.
The subjects were presented subliminally with ten card and asked to guess the number of objects depicted by each card.
Evidence of subliminal guessing ability is shown by the findings that the number of objects guessed approximated the actual numbers depicted on each card.
Skean, S.R. (1978). Videotape presentation of subliminal stimulation based on galvanic skin response monitoring: An investigation in counselor education. Rutgers University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 38 (11-A), p. 6547.
The primary purpose of this study by Samuel Skean, was to develop and demonstrate an approach to teaching counselling skills based on the integrated use of subliminal stimulation, physiological monitoring (GSR) and videotape technology.
The subjects were asked to review a videotape of an aggressive client, and were asked to stop the tape and comment aloud whenever feelings or thoughts.
The second time the tape was played to the subjects, the word "angry" was inserted at a subliminal level into all of the pauses in the tape where the particular subject had registered significant GSR fluctuations during the initial viewing.
It was hypothesized that the subjects receiving the subliminal stimulus would stop the tape more frequently, and significantly longer comments.
It was also hypothesized that the subliminally treated subjects would make a significantly greater number of responses dealing with feelings, especially feelings relating to anger.
None of the results were statistically significant.
Slipp, S. & Nissenfield, S. (1981). An experimental study of psychoanalytic theories of depression. New York University School of Medicine. New York University School of Medicine. Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis, 9 (4), pp 583-600. ISSN: 0090-3604.
Samuel Slipp and Steven Nissenfield used an application of subliminal psychodynamic activation in order to experimentally test psychoanalytic "dynamic" propositions.
It was found that, in a sample of neurotically depressed females, there was a significant decrease in depression-related responses following the stimulation of a symbiotic gratification fantasy ("mommy and I are one").
The current results point to the importance of symbiotic dynamics and the relationship dependent on a dominant other, rather than to the retroflexion of aggression in neurotic depression.
The "autonomous succeed" message ("succeed for myself") did not reverse the depressive mood. This may be due to autonomy being equated with abandonment.
The relatively differentiated depressives tended to respond to the "exploitative succeed ("succeed for father or mother") messages with a decrease in depression, while depressives with a low level of self-object differentiation tended to respond with an increase in depression.
Smith, C.D. (1982). Effects of subliminal stimulation on creative thinking. Case Western Reserve University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 43 (6-B), p. 2004. ISSN: 04194209.
Craig Smith investigated the effects of sexual and symbiotic subliminal stimuli on creativity and divergent thinking.
Smith, G. (1967). Differentiation of psychotic subjects by means of the meta-contrast technique: A Preliminary Study. Psychological Research Bulletin, 7 (7), 9 pages.
Gudmund Smith divided psychotic subjects , who had been tested with the meta-contrast technique (MCT), into six groups according to focal symptoms.
The schizophrenic group showed prominent serial discontinuity due to regression.
The paranoid, non-schizophrenic groups showed a marked subliminal influence on the frame percept plus other signs of projection.
Smith, G. & Carlsson, I. (1983). Creativity and anxiety: An experimental study. University of Lund, Psychological Lab, Sweden. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 24 (2), pp 107-115. ISSN: 0036-5564.
Gudmund Smith and Ingegerd Carlsson tested psychiatric patients, with anxiety as one of their main symptoms, using a percept-genetic (PG) test measuring creativity or willingness to reconstruct subjective interpretations of the stimulus.
Half of the subjects were subliminally presented with a threatening motif during part of the PG series.
The meta-contrast technique was used to describe defenses in the clinical group.
Taking into account their urge to be creative, clinical subjects received relatively few positive scores on the PG test.
The subliminal addition to the anxiety level did not facilitate creative functioning as was the case with the normal subjects.
The main obstacles to creative functioning seemed to be grave anxiety and rigid defense mechanisms, or to generalize, low tolerance of the anxiety necessarily associated with creative work.
Smith, G. & Carlsson, I. (1986). Creativity and aggression. Lund University, Sweden. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 3 (2), pp 159-172. ISSN: 0736-9735.
Gudmund Smith and Ingegerd Carlsson used a meta-contrast design to examine problems associated with identification in relation to creativity and aggression.
The subjects were tachistoscopically presented with a subliminal image of the word "I" and an image that depicted an aggressor and a victim facing each other.
In order to manipulate the subject's identification, the subliminal "I" was flashed either on the victim or on the aggressor, or was completely withheld.
The subjects were also administered a perceptgenetic test measuring creativity, and a test on anxiety and defensive strategies as revealed in the perceptual process (the meta-contrast technique).
The results obtained support the predictions that creative subjects would identify more openly with the aggressor than noncreative ones, when "I" was superimposed on the aggressor.
Smith, G. & Carlsson, I. (1987). Depressive retardation and subliminally manipulated aggressive involvement. Lund University. Psychological Research Bulletin, 27 (5), p.14.
Smith, G., Carlsson, I. & Danielsson, A. (1985). Identification with another person: Manipulated by means of subliminal stimulation. Lund University, Sweden. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 26 (1), pp 74-87. ISSN: 0036-5564.
Gudmund Smith, Ingegerd Carlsson and Anna Danielsson studied problems of identification, using a meta-contrast design.
The first stimulus (A) was always the word "me".
In Experiment I, the second stimulus (B) depicted on aggressor and a victim facing each other.
The subliminal A was flashed either on the victim or the aggressor or completely withheld.
In Experiment II, B showed 2 persons standing against different backgrounds - an open horizon or a closed room.
It was assumed that the subjects would be "forced" to identify with that figure in B on which A was flashed.
The results showed that the subliminal manipulation had been effective.
When led by A to identify with the aggressor, projective-sensitive and borderline subjects were confused and even reported perceptual difficulties.
When led to identify with the open side, highly creative artists reported more positive impressions of the B theme.
Smith, G., Carlsson, I & Sandstrom, S. (1985). Artists and artistic creativity - elucidated by psychological experiments. Psychological Research Bulletin, 25 (9-10). Lund University. ISSN: 0555-5620.
For this project, professional artists were studied by testing, semistructured interviews, and independent evaluations of the subjects productions.
The tests were; 1) a percept-genetic (PG) creative functioning test measuring the subjects' freedom from a conventional conception of reality, 2) a meta-contrast technique disclosing anxiety and defensive strategies, and 3) an identification test using subliminal stimulation to manipulate identification with alternative roles.
The results showed that not all subjects were creative.
According to the PG test, creativity correlated negatively with the use of compulsive or depressive defenses and with total absence or excess of anxiety.
Creative subjects more often had access to their dream life as well as their early childhood and tended to remember positive and negative qualities.
Smith, G. & Danielsson, A. (1979). Anxiety and defensive strategies in childhood and adolescence. Psychology Issues, 12 (Monograph 3). New York: International University Press.
Gudmund Smith and Anna Danielsson found that the effects of a backward masked threatening stimulus on the perception of the masking figure, are indicative of high levels of chronic anxiety in the percipient.
Smith, G.J. & Danielsson, A. (1979). The influence of anxiety on the urge for aesthetic creation: An experimental study utilizing subliminal stimulation and a percept-genetic technique. Lund University, Sweden. Psychological Research Bulletin, 19 (3-4), 36 pages.
Gudmund Smith and Anna Danielsson used a percept-genetic (PG) technique and independent interview data to study university students.
The PG technique involved the repeated presentation of a still-life motif at gradually prolonged exposure times until correct recognition was obtained (the straight PG), and thereafter at gradually shortening times (the inverted PG).
The subjects were divided into two groups.
Group one was exposed to the subliminal presentation of a threatening motif between the two PGs, while group two were presented with a neutral motif.
The results obtained showed that the creative subjects in this study differed from those in the previous study by Smith and Danielsson (1978).
Smith, G.J. & Danielsson, A. (1979). A test of identification using subliminal stimulation in a meta-contrast design: Preliminary validation with sensitive-paranoid and borderline subjects. Lund University, Psychological Laboratory, Sweden. Psychological Research Bulletin, 19 (9-10), 23 pages.
In this report, Gudmund Smith and Anna Danielsson described the Identification Test, a meta-contrast design, where the A-stimulus is the word "I", and the B stimulus is a drawing of an aggressor and a victim facing each other.
The subjects are "forced" to identify with the figure in b on which the A is flashed.
The results obtained from psychiatric inpatients substantiated the subliminal effect.
When forced to identify with the aggressor, projective-sensitive and borderline subjects confused the two figures and even reported perceptual difficulties.
Some of these difficulties remained for borderline subjects when forced to identify with the victim, or when the subliminal support was taken away.
Smith, G., Spence, D.P. & Klein, G.S. (1959). Subliminal effects of verbal stimuli. Journal of Abnormal Social Psychology, 59.
Smith, R.B. (1979). The effects of the incidental perception of rhythm on task performance and mood. United States International University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 39 (10-B), pp 5049-5050.
Somekh, D.E. (1976). The effect of embedded words in a brief visual display. British Journal of Psychology, 67 (4), pp 529-535. ISSN: 0007-1269.
This study replicates and extends an experiment by Eagle, Wolitzky & Klein (1966).
The subjects were asked to write brief stories describing an Object Relations Test card following exposure to a 7 x 7 letter matrix in which were embedded either neutral words or emotive words.
Two groups were exposed to the matrices for 10 sec ("supraliminal control condition"), and the remaining four groups for 1 sec ("subliminal condition").
Independent judges were able to distinguish, to a significant degree, between the stories of subjects who were exposed to emotive words and those exposed to neutral words under the "subliminal condition"
The judges could not, however, distinguish between the stories of subjects exposed for the longer duration ("supraliminal condition") to emotive and neutral words respectively.
Somekh, D.E. & Wilding, J.M. (1973). Perception without awareness in a dichoptic viewing situation. Bedford College, University of London, England. British Journal of Psychology, 64 (3), pp 339-349.
This study replicates a previous study by Smith, Spence and Klein, which claims to demonstrate that difference in meaning between words registered below recognition threshold could affect associated thought.
In two experiments, a neutral face was paired with affect words presented subliminally, and the subjects were asked to rate it's expression using a forced choice indicator.
In experiment 1, words presented outside of awareness had an effect on semantically related judgements, which was at least as great as that with the same words presented supraliminally.
In experiment two, the results from experiment one were confirmed.
It was also found that increasing the similarity of contour between critical and control words of different meaning suggested differences between subliminal and supraliminal sessions.
The responses tended to be meaning-related in the former and structure related i the latter.
Sommer, L. (1986). The effects of subliminal psychodynamic activation on verbal time estimation. Long Island University, Brooklyn Center. Dissertation Abstracts International, 46 (9-B), p. 3231. ISSN: 0419-4209.
Leonard Sommer performed this study in order to investigate the linkage between psychoanalytic and development theory about the origins of time sense and the experimental method of verbal time estimation.
Tachistoscopic presentation of stimuli were used to hypothetically induce unconscious fantasies of merging and loss.
The subjects were assigned to nine groups with groups 1-8 receiving tachistoscopic stimulation and group 9 receiving an imagery exercise.
The subjects were asked to first estimate 9 randomly presented tones of intervals 38, 55 and 75 seconds.
The subjects then received the stimuli, after which they were asked to estimate the duration of 9 new tones of the same duration.
The results showed a significant interaction between groups and the interval estimated.
The three groups who received the symbiotic stimulation were significantly different from the control when estimating intervals of 38 and 55 seconds.
At 75 seconds, two of the symbiotic stimuli approached significance but only the stimulus hypothesized to evoke an early representation of the self was significantly different.
The group receiving the loss stimulus did not perform as hypothesized.
The results obtained support the hypothesis that time estimation can be affected by subliminal stimulation of unconscious symbiotic wishes at certain intervals.
Spence, D.P. (1961). The multiple effects of subliminal stimuli Journal of Personality, 29.
Spence, D.P. (1967). Subliminal perception and perceptual defense: Two sides of a single problem. Behavioral Science, 12 (3), pp 183-193. ISSN: 0005-7940.
Donald Spence discusses the differences between subliminal perception and perceptual defense.
Subliminal perception refers to the registration of faint stimuli outside of awareness.
Perceptual defense refers to the nonrecognition of threatening stimuli.
Spence argues that both are part of a single continuum and should be studied together.
Spence, D.P. (1981). Subliminal effects of lexical decision time. College of Medicine & Dentistry of New Jersey-Rutgers Medical School, Piscataway. Lund University. Psychological Research Bulletin, 21 (7). ISSN: 0348-3673.
Spence, D.P. (1983). Subliminal effects on lexical decision time. University of Medicine & Dentistry of New Jersey-Rutgers Medical School, Piscataway. Archiv fur Psychologie, 135 (1), pp 67-72. ISSN: 0066-6475.
Donald Spence studied the reaction times (RTs) of right-handed subjects to 5-letter target words under subliminal and near-liminal priming conditions.
Of the target words, one-third were meaningless and the rest of varying frequency.
Any target could be preceded by a blank, by a related prime, or by an unrelated prime.
Targets were preceded by primes shown for 10, 20 and 40 msec.
The results show that the priming effect was demonstrated for related primes but not in other conditions.
It was also found that the subliminal related primes facilitated recognition, whereas near-liminal related primes did not.
The latter effect may have been due to a form of forward masking.
Spence, D.P. & Bressler, J. (1962). Subliminal activation in conceptual associates: A study of "rational" pre-conscious thinking. Journal of Personality, 38, pp 89-105.
Spence, D.P. & Ehrenberg, B. (1964). Effects of oral deprivation in response to subliminal and supraliminal verbal food stimuli. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 69 (1).
Spence D.P. & Gordon, C.M. (1967). Activation and Measurement of an early oral fantasy: An exploratory study. Research Center for Mental Health, New York, NY. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 15 (1), pp 99-129.
This study by Donald Spence and Carol Gordon found that the effects of rejection did not clearly emerge into awareness unless a subliminal stimulus had also been exposed.
Spence, D.P. & Gordon, C.M. (1973). Activation and assessment of an early oral fantasy: An exploratory study. New York University, Research Center for Mental Health. Psychological Issues, 8 (2, mono. 30), pp 11-28.
Donald Spence and Carol Gordon performed this study in order to test the proposition that a subliminal stimulus would provide a port of entry for the study measurement of unconscious fantasies.
It was hypothesized that a) severe rejection would arouse a compensatory fantasy of being fed, and b) such a fantasy would be particularly likely to appear in subjects who had shown, on a questionnaire, that they use food in response to rejection.
High and low scoring subjects on the questionnaire were made to feel either rejected or accepted, and were exposed to either a positive or neutral stimulus prior to being asked to learn a list of words.
The hypothesis was most strongly confirmed in the analysis of important-words which were not on the list but were erroneously recalled.
Spence, D.P. & Holland, B. (1962). The restricting effects of awareness: A paradox and an explanation. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 64, pp 163-174.
Spence D.P. & Smith, G.J. (1977). Experimenter bias against subliminal perception? Comments on a replication. Rutgers Medical School, Piscataway. British Journal of Psychology, 68 (3), pp 279-280.
Spiro, T.W. (1976). The effects of subliminal symbiotic stimulation and strengthening self boundaries of schizophrenic pathology. New York University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 36 (11-B), pp 5818-5819.
Stadler, M. & Kruse, P. (1990). The self-organization perspective in cognition research: historical remarks and new experimental approaches. Department of Psychology, University of Bremen. Springer Series in Synergetics, 45, pp 32-52.
The authors discuss the synergetic effects in cognition and behavior as systems in phase transitions from unstable to stable states, or from one stable state to another of higher order passing unstable phases.
The authors assert that a central characteristic of such a system is fluctuation in behavior and further that these fluctuations are the prerequisites and mortar of phase transition.
Stambrook, M. & Martin, D.G. (1983). Brain laterality and the subliminal perception of facial expression. International Journal of Neuroscience, 18 (1-2), pp 45-58. ISSN: 0020-7454.
In this study, right-handed subjects were presented simultaneously with; 1) a face expressing positive, neutral, or negative affect in the left or right visual field, and 2) the outlines of the face containing visual noise, in the opposite visual field.
A range of stimulus presentation durations was used to sample above and below threshold processing.
The results showed a left field advantage in locating the face.
There was only suggestive evidence in favor of a right hemisphere superiority in the processing of facial expression.
Steele, E.H. (1969). The impact of psychoanalytic theory on the freedom of speech. Psychoanal Q (United States), 38 (4), pp 583-615.
Steinberg, R.J. (1975). The effects of subliminal mother-need tachistoscopic stimulation on the ego pathology of hospitalized male schizophrenics. Long Island University, Brooklyn Center. Dissertation Abstracts International, 36 (4-B), p. 1934.
Richard Steinberg performed this study in order to test the two hypotheses; 1) the hypothesis of Wolman (1966) that schizophrenic ego pathology is related to an interruption of early childhood narcissism by a great investment of "love" and concern in the mothering object, 2) the hypothesis of Searles (1965) that these feeling of love for mother are the principle cause of the schizophrenics symbiotic attachment to mother.
The hypotheses were tested using the "subliminal psychodynamic activation" method of Silverman (1971).
The stimuli used were; 1) "poor mommy needs me", 2) "mommy feels fine", 3) "people are standing", and 4) "people are walking".
The results showed; 1) the message "poor mommy needs me" increased behavior pathology for the schizophrenics, 2) the message "mommy feels fine" had no effect on ego pathology or psychological differentiation, 3) the message "people are walking" increased psychological differentiation for schizophrenics, and 4) subjects aggressive imagery was positively correlated with increases in pathological thinking for the mommy messages.
The results supported the first hypothesis but not the second.
Strauch, I. et. al. (1976). The impact of meaningful auditory signals on sleeping behavior. University of Saarlandes, Saarbrucken, West Germany. Archiv fur Psychologie, 128 (1-2), pp 75-95. Language: GERMAN.
This study was performed in order to determine the awakening thresholds in various sleep stages, and to assess the effects of subliminal stimulation.
Three meaningful auditory stimuli were used; 1) the sound of vomiting, 2) a humming sound, and 3) the sound of a jet airplane.
The sound of vomiting, which was produced below the threshold of conscious awareness was the subliminal sound which had the fastest arousal of sleeping subjects.
Strauss, H. (1968). A phenomenological approach to the subconscious. Bar Ilan University, Ramat Gan, Israel. Nordisk Psykologi, 20 (4), pp 203-206.
Helen Strauss discusses a phenomenological approach to the "subconscious" and gives 3 ways of using the subconscious; 1) a vague perception which occurs in experiments with subliminal stimulation, 2) a theoretical assumption based on observations, and 3) an immediate experience of something existing in the subconscious.
Stross, L. & Shevrin, H. (1968). Thought organization in hypnosis and the waking state. The effects of subliminal stimulation in different states of consciousness. Menninger Foundation, Topeka, KS. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 147 (3), pp 272-288. ISSN: 0022-3018.
Lawrence Stross and Howard Shevrin described three experiments on subliminal stimulation which involved recall of percepts, images, free associations, and dreams in hypnosis and the waking state.
By discovering the effect of subliminal stimuli in these different forms of thinking, it would be possible to provide objectively measurable reflections of the thought process which regulate and determine mental contents
It was found that; 1) hypnosis has hypermnesic properties that enhance subliminal effects, and 2) subliminal perception is probably retrieved through recovery of images and dreams.
Stross, L. & Shevrin, H. (1969). Hypnosis as a method for investigating unconscious thought processes. A review of the research. Journal of the American Psychoanalysts Association, 17 (1), pp 100-1035. ISSN: 0003-0651.
Sturman, P.A. (1980). Derivatives of the castration complex in normal adults. St. John's University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 41 (1-B), p. 370.
Philip Sturman hypothesized that the arousal of the unconscious derivatives of the castration complex in normal adult males and females would lead to intrapsychic conflict capable of interfering with performance in various spheres of functioning.
It was also hypothesized that the male subjects would experience greater conflict than females following the subliminal arousal of the unconscious dynamics of the castration complex.
Three subliminal stimuli were used; 1) "father castrates", 2) "people walking", and 3) "father argues".
The results showed that; 1) the castration and aggression messages created unconscious psychic conflict in normal subjects and caused them to regress to levels of perceptual responding characteristic of earlier stages of development, 2) males were not found to display greater psychic conflict than females under the castration message condition, 3) the state anxiety revealed no significant changes following either the castration or aggression message, 4) word recall increased for males following the aggression message, whereas it did not for females. 5) words with negative affective tone for castration themes were recalled less than either positive or neutral words, and 6) the Holtzman Inkblot scoring categories Form Definiteness, Integration and Location were found to be sensitive indicators of perceptual regression.
Sullivan, R. (1985) Biofeedback theta training coupled with subliminal audio suggestions in the treatment of alcoholism. Center for Alcohol Rehabilitation and Educational Services, Medford, OR. Mimeographed Manuscript, Bio-Feedback Systems, Inc., Boulder, CO.
Rita Sullivan used EEG theta wave biofeedback training and subliminal messages to study the relationships between 1) alcohol use and stress reduction 2) cognitive input and alcoholic behavior, and 3) changes in quality of life.
It was concluded that; 1) relaxation can be taught and used as an effective and appropriate alternative to alcohol for stress reduction, and 2) subliminal suggestions given during theta state hyper-suggestibility help control the desire to drink.
Swanson, N.J. (1985). The improvement of test performance through the use of a subliminal hypnosis tape. Doctoral Dissertation, Nova University, FL.
Norma Swanson (1985) used Potentials Unlimited subliminal tapes with nursing students preparing for a state license examination.
The subjects were instructed to listen to the tapes every day for the 48 days prior to the test.
On the State Board examination, the control group scored 2060, while the experimental groups 2183.
Swanson, R.J. (1981). The effects of oedipally-related stimuli in the subliminal psychodynamic activation paradigm. A replication and an extension. Loyola University, IL. Dissertation Abstracts International, 41 (11-B), p. 4278. ISSN: 0419-4209.
Taris, L.J. (1970). Subliminal perception: An experimental study to determine whether a science concept can be taught subliminally to fourth grade pupils. Boston University School of Education. Dissertation Abstracts International, 31 (5-A), p. 2199.
Louis Taris performed this study in order to; 1) determine experimentally whether a subject matter concept can be taught subliminally to fourth grade pupils, and 2) determine the relative influence, if any, of sex, I.Q., reading comprehension (paragraph meaning), and vocabulary (word meaning) as well as socio-economic status and motivation upon subliminal learning , if subliminal learning was found to occur.
The results obtained indicated that it was unlikely that subliminal learning had occurred.
Taylor, E. (1985). Brain Washing. Live Broadcast on KTKK radio, Salt Lake City, UT. (Transcript available from Just Another Reality Publishing).
Eldon Taylor discusses brain wave entrainment methods which can be used to reprogram an individual's mind.
Taylor, E. (1986). Holistic approach to hypnosis. Attain, St. John's University, Springfield, LA.
Eldon Taylor discusses how subliminals can be used as a therapeutic tool in hypnotherapeutic interventions.
Taylor, E. (1987). Cancer Remission. Mind Mint Memo: Salt Lake City. Just Another Reality Publishing.
Eldon Taylor describes a case history where the use of subliminal audio tapes aided cancer remission.
Taylor, E. (1987). Subliminal Technology, Boulder City, NV. Just Another Reality Publishing, 14 pages.
Eldon Taylor discusses technical aspects of subliminal audio cassettes in this short booklet.
Taylor, E. (1987). The symbiotic as a merging with archetype oneness as opposed to Silverman's personal mommy merging. Paper presented at Riverton College, Riverton, Wyo. (Transcript available from Progressive Awareness Research).
Taylor, E. (1988). Subliminal stimuli as an intervention treatment for sex offenders: A case study. Presentation of findings using subliminal stimuli on pedophiliacs to the Utah State Prison Psychologists and Social staff.
Eldon Taylor described a case study that consisted of a number of sex offenders, incarcerated at the Utah State Prison.
For this study, Taylor explained the theory of subliminal communication to the inmates and then asked them to write their own affirmations.
All of the offenders reported; 1) the fear of women, 2) the belief that women disliked them, 3) their physiological response to children, and 4) their fantasies with children.
A composite program incorporating the statements written by the inmates (eg. "women like me", etc.) were subliminally implanted in the music audio tapes.
Pre- and post-plethysmographic measurement indicated a significant decrease in sexual response to stimuli associated with children following 30 hours exposure to the subliminal stimuli.
Taylor suggests that further studies are appropriate utilizing subliminal stimuli to alter condition response mechanisms that may be present in pedophiliacs, and to alter fantasy formations around children by removing unnatural fears of women, and therefore, the apparent sublimation process that directs sexual drive towards children.
Taylor, E. (1988). Subliminal Learning: An Eclectic Approach. Just Another Reality Publishing.
Taylor reports on clinical interventions employing subliminal audio technology. Cases include mall seizures and degenerative muscle conditions.
Taylor suggests some contraindications to the use of subliminal stimuli.
Also covered in this book are subliminal findings in the sports arena, scientific literature review, accommodating subliminal information processing within existing paradigms of health care, minimum standards for audio subliminal experimental replications and a model of holonomic information registration.
Taylor, E. (1988). Subliminal stimuli as a voluntary modality for rehabilitation in a prison environment. Presentation made to the Psych and Social workers at the Utah State Prison.
Eldon Taylor discussed; 1) the voluntary use on a reward system, 2) pre and post-test instruments, 3) selection of stimuli content, and 4) record keeping.
Taylor, E. (1989). Technical method of tape production. Patent No: 07440244, United States Patent Office.
Eldon Taylor filed this patent for creating whole brain subliminal audio tapes.
The patent includes 105 claims.
Taylor, E. (1989). The seven fundamentals of the master secret. Published by Progressive Awareness Research, Boulder City, NV.
Eldon Taylor discusses the secret of true success and happiness and explains how subliminals can help one achieve their highest potential.
Taylor, E. (1989). How to use subliminal stimuli for therapeutic interventions. Paper presented to the National College of Hypnosis and Psychotherapy, Chester, England. (Available on tape from Progressive Awareness Research.)
Eldon Taylor states that fear of rejection conditions most of our responses.
He explains how detailed histories of significant life events etc. can be used to prepare affirmations which the therapist can use to create a custom subliminal for the client.
Taylor, E. (1989). The Great Body Escape. A video produced by Teri Eidsaune for PBS.
In this video, Eldon Taylor explains how subliminals can be used to help an individual alter self-defeating behavior.
Some case studies are discussed.
Taylor, E. (1990). Die Subliminal Methode: Lernen Mit Dem Unterbewusstsein. Published by Goldmann Verlag. Language: GERMAN.
Eldon Taylor discusses the controversy of subliminal communication and it's effectiveness as a self improvement tool.
Taylor, E. (1990). Subliminal Communication: Emperor's Clothes or Panacea? (Revised edition). Boulder City, NV. Just Another Reality Publishing.
Eldon Taylor reported on the use of subliminal self-help audio cassettes.
Topics include laws, legislation, history, usage and the "Home made " subliminal.
Taylor reviews clinical data, anecdotal information and one of his double blind studies conducted at the Utah State Prison.
Taylor, E. (1990). The forgiveness set in therapy. Paper presented to the American Board of Hypnotherapy, Sixth annual convention, Garden Grove, CA.
Eldon Taylor explains the importance of the forgiveness set and its effectiveness when used subliminally.
He asserts that three messages alone can measurably reduce rejection orientated pathologies; 1) "I forgive myself", 2) "I forgive all others", and 3) "I am forgiven".
Taylor, E. (1990). The effect of subliminal auditory stimuli in a surgical setting involving anesthetic requirements. St. John's University, Springfield, Louisiana. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation.
This study explored the effect of subliminal auditory stimuli in lowering anesthetic requirements in surgery.
An exact methodology was technically devised to make replication possible.
The study utilized 360 surgical patients of a plastic surgeon and was conducted over an 18-month period.
Each subject was exposed to verbal stimuli presented below the threshold of awareness.
The method of verification of findings was based on general anesthetic levels compared to a history of 360 preceding patients (the control group).
All subjects were advised that a "positive message" subliminal would be played pre-operatively, intra-operatively and post-operatively.
The programs were utilized an average of three relevant hours by the patient population.
Results indicate that verbal messages presented subliminally did lower anesthetic requirements during surgery by 32%, building upon and replicating the work of Hess (1981).
This study suggests that subliminal auditory messages could be employed successfully as an ancillary aid in medical interventions,
Taylor, E. & Albini, J. (1990). A protocol for the mental training and coaching of athletes. In press.
Eldon Taylor and Joseph Albini use case studies of Olympic athletes and championship teams to factor backwards their success with hypnosis, subliminal audio stimuli and "focus" training.
Measures of traits, personality, motor skill and actual field results are correlated.
The authors insist that mental training requires at least as sophisticated a system of methodology as physical training.
They assert that failures to replicate Eastern Block success have been due to; 1) absence of a western model to fit the technology within, 2) lack of systematic application, 3) failure to understand the mental methods of athletes, 4) inappropriate use or design, 5) insufficient adequacy on the part of the researcher and/or the technicians employing the methods.
Taylor, E., McCusker, C. & Liston, L. (1986). A study of the effects of subliminal communication on inmates at the Utah State Prison. Study taken from the book Subliminal Communication, Emperor's Clothes Or Panacea?, pp 46-48 and 93-99. Just Another Reality Publishing. ISBN: 0-940699-01-X.
Eldon Taylor, Charles McCusker and Lee Liston carried out this study at the Utah State Prison.
Thirty-eight residents completed the MMPI and Thurstone Temperament Schedule in a voluntary study.
The subjects were then randomly placed into three groups. The experimental group played the subliminal tape for twenty days, the placebo group played a similar sounding tape but without the embedded subliminal messages while the control group had no tape exposure.
At the end of the twenty days, the subjects were again administered the Thurstone Temperament Schedule.
The results indicated a decrease in the Dominance scale scores and an increase in the Reflective and Stability scale scores for the experimental group. The opposite results were obtained from the control group.
The results indicate change and suggest strongly the need for further research.
Thompson, A.H., Dewar, R.E. & Franken, R.E. (1971). A test of the set disruption interpretation of perceptual defense. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 25 (3), pp 222-227. ISSN: 0008-4255.
Thornton, J.W. (1987). A test of subliminal symbiotic activation as a means of alleviating depression. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 4 (4), pp 335-342.
Thornton, P.I., Igleheart, H.C. & Silverman. L.H. (1987). Subliminal stimulation of symbiotic fantasies as an aid in the treatment of drug-abusers. International Journal of the Addictions, 22 (8), pp 751-765.
Thuere, J.R. (1985). Computer-assisted spelling: A subliminal methodology to increase cognitive performance and academic self-concept. University of Wisconsin, Madison. Dissertation Abstracts International, 45 (10-A), p. 3074. ISSN: 0419-4209.
Tiley, A.J. (1979). Sleep learning during stage 2 and REM sleep. MRC Applied Psychology Unit, Cambridge, England, Biological Psychology, 9 (3), pp 155-161. ISSN: 0301-0511.
Andrew Tiley investigated sleep learning during stage 2 and REM sleep.
The subjects were presented with a 20-item picture series at bedtime.
In the latter part of the night, a tape-recorded series of pictures was repeated 10 times during either Stage 2 or rapid eye movement (REM) sleep.
The results showed that the number of additional words elicited through recognition was significantly greater for REM-repeated words than for stage 2 repeated words.
It is suggested that retrieval limitations, perhaps a result of REM state dependency rather than storage inhibition may be the main focus of the initial recall failure.
By comparison, Stage 2 sleep would seem to present both a lower barrier to memory storage and retrieval compatibility with wakefulness.
Tranel, D. & Damasio, A.R. (1985). Knowledge without awareness. An automatic index of facial recognition by prosopagnosis. University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City. Science, 228, pp 1453-1454.
Daniel Tranel and Antonio Damasio studied two subjects with prosopagnosis, the inability to recognize visually the faces of familiar persons who continue to be normally recognized through other sensory channels.
The two subjects generated frequent and large electrodermal skin conductance responses to faces of persons they had previously known but were not unable to recognize.
They did not generate such responses to unfamiliar faces.
The results suggest that an early step of the physiological process of recognition is still taking place in these patients, without their awareness.
This study provides evidence of subconscious and unconscious processes.
Research in subliminal techniques may produce methods of learning permitting people to circumvent the brain's barriers between awareness and knowledge.
Trank, D.M. (1976). Subliminal stimulation: Hoax or reality? Study prepared at the University of Iowa.
Douglas Trank traces the history of research into subliminal stimulation.
He explains that under certain circumstance and conditions, subliminal communication does occur.
Although subliminal stimuli do affect human responses, the article asserts that there is no sound evidence to prove its effectiveness in changing behavior.
Trank concludes that the effectiveness of subliminal stimuli is determined by the subject's motivational state.
Treder, C.J. & Morgan, D.L. (1987). Subliminal Cessation of Smoking (Report No. 6). Clarion Pennsylvania: Center for Independent Research, 35 pages.
Cheryl Treder and Don Morgan reported reduced consumption of cigarettes following 21 day use of a subliminal tape.
It was concluded that 21 days was insufficient subliminal exposure time for most smokers with long-standing smoking habits to stop smoking completely.
Treimer, M. & Simonson, M.R. (1986). Old wine in new bottles: Subliminal messages in instructional media. Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the Association for Educational Communications Technology. Las Vegas, NV.
Margaret Treimer and Michael Simonson conducted a study to determine if viewing a commercially prepared video tape containing written and aural subliminal messages was more effective at producing weight loss than a video tape containing the same content, but without the subliminals.
After 25 viewings over a 37-day period, the subjects were measured for attitude change, weight change, body fat change, and caloric intake.
The subliminal group did show more improvement in attitudes toward food and exercise but the difference was not statistically significant.
There was no difference between the experimental and control groups in weight change or body fat change.
Treimer, M. & Simpson, M. (1988). Subliminal messages, persuasion and behavior change. Journal of Social Psychology, 128 (4), pp 563-565.
Tricou, C.F. (1987). A study of the effects of auditory subliminal stimulation upon male versus female sixth grade student attitudes toward and achievement in mathematics. Dissertation Abstracts International, 48 (6-A), p. 1391.
Trieber, Edward J. (1984). The effects of supraliminal stimulation combined with subliminal symbiotic stimuli on academic performance. New York Universi ty. Dissertation Abstracts International, 45 (2-B), pp 688-689. ISSN: 0419-4209.
Trimble, R. & Eriksen, C.W. (1966). "Subliminal cues" and the Mu5ller-type illusion. University of Illinois. Perception and Psychophysics, 1 (11), pp 401-404.
Ralph Trimble and Charles Eriksen superimposed feathers-arrows from 1 field upon line-pairs from the other field (using the viewing box from a 2-field tachistoscope,) to construct the mu5ller-lyer illusion.
6 os were tested for the illusory effects under 4 conditions of feather-arrow detectability; 1) D' = 0 (no luminance), 2) D' = .42, 3) D' = 1.00, and 4) D' = 3.7.
The length differences of lines of any given pair were 0, 1/64, 2/64 or 6/64.
The illusion effect was observed when the feather-arrow D' equaled 3.7.
No significant nor suggestive illusion effect was observed with the other feather-arrow detectability conditions.
Tryer, P., Horn, S. & Lee, I. (1978). Treatment of agoraphobia by subliminal and supraliminal exposure to phobic cine film. The Lancet, 1 (8060), pp 358-360. ISSN: 0023-7507.
Chronically agoraphobic subjects were divided into three groups.
The supraliminal group saw an agoraphobic film specially made for the study illustrating a range of phobic conditions.
The subliminal group viewed the same film at a level of illumination below the threshold of awareness.
The control group saw a blank screen with no filmed material for the same length of time.
The results showed that both the supraliminal and subliminal groups improved significantly with regard to phobic fears, avoidance and overall assessment.
Tyrer, P., Lewis, P. & Lee, I. (1978). Effects of subliminal and supraliminal stress on symptoms of anxiety. University of Southampton, General Hospital, England. Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases, 166 (2), pp 88-95. ISSN: 0022-3018.
Peter Tyrer, Peter Lewis and Ian Lee performed two experiments to test whether the subliminal viewing of emotive material induced anxiety and its associated bodily symptoms.
In experiment one, the subjects looked at anxiety-inducing words presented singly through a tachistoscope under supraliminal or subliminal conditions,
In experiment two, the subjects looked at a neutral and an emotive movie film under similar conditions.
The ratings from the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were significantly increased under the subliminal emotive conditions.
The correlations between psychic and somatic symptoms of anxiety were significantly higher under supraliminal conditions as compared with the subliminal conditions.
Underwood, G. (1976). Semantic inference from unattended printed words. British Journal of Psychology, 67, pp 327-338.
Underwood, G. (1977). Attention, awareness and hemispheric differences in word recognition. Neuropsychologia, 15, pp 61-67.
Underwood, G. (1980). Memory systems and conscious processes. In G. Underwood (Ed.) Aspects of Consciousness.
Underwood, G. & Moray, N. (1971). Shadowing and monitoring for selective attention. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. 23, pp 284-295.
Ungaro, R. (1982). The role of ego strength and alternative subliminal messages in behavioral treatment of obesity. Adelphi University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 42 (10-B), pp 4215-4216. ISSN: 0419-4209.
Valind, B. & Valind, L. (1968). Effects of subliminal stimulation on homographs. Lund University, Psychological Lab., Sweden. Psychological Research Bulletin, 88, 9 p.
Brigitte Valind and Lars Valind studied the effects of subliminal stimulation on homographs.
For this experiment, a picture was flashed on a screen at a subliminal exposure time.
This picture was related to 1 of the 2 meanings of a homograph, which was presented immediately after the picture, but at supraliminal exposure time.
The subliminal stimulus was shown to have an effect on verbal associations to the homograph, but not on latency.
This effect was evident only for homographs, where in a pilot study the subject's association could be traced equally often to 1 or the other of the 2 meanings of the homograph.
VandenBoogert, C. (1984). A study of Potentials Unlimited subliminal persuasion self-hypnosis tapes. Grand Rapids, MI: Potentials Unlimited.
Carol VandenBoogert surveyed 600 Potentials Unlimited subliminal tape users.
It was found that success tended to increase after listening to subliminal tapes for more than 15 days, with many individuals needing longer exposure.
A consistent pattern of listening was not important.
She reported that subliminal tape users are able to carry on with their regular business without needing to follow a particular frequency or playing pattern.
Varga, M.P. (1974). An experimental study of aspects of the psychoanalytic theory of elation. New York University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 34 (8-B), pp 4062-4063.
Michael Varga performed this experiment in order to investigate experimentally the psychodynamics of elation.
The subjects all showed mood instability with both depressive and hypomanic trends.
The subjects were divided into four groups, and received one of following four subliminal presentations of various pictorial and verbal stimuli, 1) a picture of a person about to stab an older woman, the aggression stimulus, 2) a picture of a child crying over a coffin in which a woman is laid out, with the caption "I have lost mommy", the loss stimulus, 3) a picture of a woman nursing a baby, with the caption "mommy feeds me", the "oral-gratification" stimulus, and 4) either of two pictures of people standing side by side, with the caption "people are walking", the control stimulus.
The subjects were primed prior to the presentation of the stimuli.
It was hypothesized that; a) the subliminal presentation of the oral gratification stimulus would reinforce images related to hypomanic denial, resulting in a hypomanic mood state, whereas b) the presentation of the aggression and the loss stimuli would each results in a depressive mood state, the first through arousal of threatening depressive drive derivatives which would be turned innards resulting in depression, and the second through reinforcing depressive images and fantasies.
The results supported the hypothesis that the arousal of aggressive drive derivatives may lead to depression since there was a highly significant drop in hypomania, and a significant rise in mood depression for subjects receiving the aggression stimulus.
The hypotheses for the oral gratification and loss treatment conditions were not supported.
Vilenskaya, L. (1985). Firewalking and beyond. PSI Research, San Francisco, CA. PSI Research, 4 (2), pp 89-109. San Francisco, CA.
Larissa Vilenskaya reports observations of the Fear into Power: The Firewalker Experience seminar in San Francisco.
The use of neurolinguistic programming techniques and Eriksonian embedded (subliminal) commands by the leader is described.
Voight, R.A. (1982). Stress reactivity of cardiorespiratory fit and unfit individuals after progressive neuromuscular relaxation training. University of Maryland. Dissertation Abstracts International, 43 (07-A), p. 2278.
Robert Voight used both neuromuscular relaxation training and subliminal audio tapes to prepare fit and unfit subjects for response to stress.
It was found that the degree of fitness did not influence the effect of relaxation training, and that stress response was not related to level of cardiorespiratory fitness.
Vokey, J.R. & Read, J.D. (1985). Subliminal messages: Between the devil and the media. University of Lethbridge, Canada. American Psychologist, 40 (11), pp 1231-1239. ISSN: 0003-066X.
John Vokey and Don Read examined the controversial public issue of subliminal messages in advertising and popular music.
The subjects completed a wide variety of tasks to determine whether any evidence exists that such messages affect behavior.
The results revealed no evidence to support such a claim.
It is suggested that the apparent presence of backward messages in popular music is more a function of active construction on the art of the perceiver than of the existence of the messages themselves.
Wachtel, P.L. & Schimek, J.G. (1970). An exploratory study of the effects of emotionally toned incidental stimuli. Journal of Personality, 38 (4), pp 467-481. ISSN: 0022-3506.
Wagstaff, G.F. (1974). The effects of repression-sensitization of a brightness scaling measure of perceptual defence. University of Newcastle-Upon-Tyne, England. British Journal of Psychology, 65 (3), pp 395-401. ISSN: 0007-1269.
Graham Wagstaff investigated the relationship between perceptual sensitivity and stimulus emotionality by employing a methodology designed to preclude the intervention of response variables.
The subjects were asked to estimate the relative brightness of pairs of physically identical light signals superimposed on subliminal words presented below the awareness threshold.
The Repression-Sensitization (R-S) scale was used as a possible personality correlate.
The results support the perceptual defense hypothesis with significant differences in modes of responding found between sexes and categories on the R-S scale.
Walker, A. (1979). Music and the unconscious. British Medical Journal, 2 (6205), pp 1641-1643. ISSN: 0007-1447.
Walker, P. (1975). The subliminal perception of movement and the "suppression" in binocular rivalry. British Journal of Psychology, 66 (3), pp 347-356.
In this article Peter Walker draws an analogy between the perceptual limitation that characterize the dichotic listening paradigm and the suppression that occurs in binocular rivalry when different stimuli are presented to the two eyes.
The present series of experiments with subjects in a dominant and in a suppressed condition, focused on the fate of the information residing in a suppressed eye (unattended channel) during binocular rivalry.
The results show that the temporal course of rivalry was sensitive to the presence of a subliminal moving stimulus within the currently suppressed field.
The effects are seen to confirm a literal interpretation of W.J. Levitt's thesis relating changes in the "stimulus strength" of rivalry field to subsequent changes in the temporal course of the phenomenon.
This interpretation is consistent with the hypothesis that, despite phenomenal suppression, a full analysis is undertaken on the currently non-dominant stimulus.
Data are related to models of selective attention and to the notion that there are parallel visual systems.
Walker, P. & Myer, R.R. (1978). The subliminal perception of movement and the course of autokinesis. British Journal of Psychology, 69 (2), pp 225-231. ISSN: 0007-1269.
In this study, the course of autokinesis is shown to be sensitive to the real movement of a surrounding stimulus.
When the stimulus was presented supraliminally, the apparent movement was induced in a direction opposite to that of the real movement.
When the same stimulus was presented subliminally, the real movement tended to inhibit autokinesis by inducing brief periods of stationarity between the phases of upward and downward apparent movement.
The results of this study confirm previous findings that the movement of a stimulus may be discriminated without there being any perceptual (phenomena) adjunct.
Watson, G.B. (1970). Motor response latency as an indicator of subliminal affective stimulation. Journal of General Psychology, 82 (2nd Half), pp 139-143. ISSN: 0022-1309.
Watson, J.P. (1975). An experimental method for the study of unconscious conflict. Guy's Hospital Medical School, London, England. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 48 (4), pp 299-301. ISSN: 0007-1129.
In this report, Watson evaluates the experimental studies reported by L.H. Silverman, in which the results of exposing subjects to contrasting types of tachistoscopic stimulation are held to support various hypotheses concerning psychopathology derived from psychoanalytic theory.
Watson questions the validity of the projective procedures used by Silverman as outcome measures.
Watson believed that Silverman has not provided grounds for assuming that the unconscious is receptive to words, that it interprets words in the same way as the conscious mind, or that tachistoscopically presented stimuli activate processes involving psychodynamic mechanisms.
A possible explanation of Silverman's results, in terms of information processing, is that the stimuli presented have affective connotations which may generate different behavioral consequences through their effects on the neural substrate of memory.
Weinberger, J. (1986). Comment on Robert Fudin's paper "subliminal psychodynamic activation: Mommy and I are not yet one". Perceptual and Motor Skills, 63 (3), pp 1232-1234.
Werman, D.S. (1984). Psychological research, its pitfalls, and the wish for natural science rigor. Duke University Medical Center. International Forum for Psychoanalysis, 1 (2), pp 181-186. ISSN: 0738-8217.
In this article, David Werman discusses the work of L.H. Silverman et al.
It was Silverman who found that a subliminal message could activate unconscious fantasies of symbiosis and oneness in patients, such that their psychopathology would be alleviated or exacerbated.
Werman criticizes the traditional scientific techniques used by Silverman et al, and notes that an investigator cannot be cognizant of all of the significant variables when dealing with cases of psychopathology.
Werman also believes that Silverman et al neglected to rigorously interpret their findings.
West, G.N. (1985). The effects of auditory subliminal psychodynamic activation on state anxiety. Ball State University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 46 (1-B), p. 319. ISSN: 0419-4209.
For this study, Gilbert West investigated the effect of auditory subliminal psychodynamic activation for treating anxiety disorders.
The results showed that both the experimental and control groups experienced decreased state anxiety after the three treatments, and that the difference between the two groups was not significant.
The placebo treatment was found to be as effective as the subliminal mode.
It was concluded that three exposures to subliminal messages was insufficient to produce the desired results.
Westerlundh, B. (1983). The motives of defence. Perceptgenetic studies: I. Shame. Lund University. Psychological Research Bulletin, 23 (7), 13 pages. ISSN: 0555-5620.
Bert Westerlundh found that subjects responded to iterated tachistoscopic presentations of a picture containing a man and a boy that was preceded by the subliminally presented words "I am glad" or "I am ashamed." "
The "shame" message was found to lead to a wider spectrum of defensive reports, as assessed by percept-genetic analysis (U. Kragh and G.J. Smith, 1970).
The responses reflecting isolation, reaction formation against aggression, and intro-aggression were significantly more frequent amongst the subjects in the "shame" rather than the "glad" condition.
Westerlund, B. (1983). Personal organization of the visual field: a study of ambient to focal reports of threatening stimuli. Arch. Psychol., 135 (1), pp 17-35. ISSN: 0066-6475.
Westerlundh, B. (1985). Subliminal influence on imagery: Two exploratory experiments. Lund University. Psychological Research Bulletin, 25 (6-7), 31 pages. ISSN: 0555-5620.
Bert Westerlundh performed two experiments on the subliminal influence of imagery.
In experiment one, the subjects were exposed to subliminal stimuli that were neutral or aggressively/sexually provoking.
The results showed an increase in defensive reports and a specific increase in reports of aggression (with denial of aggression) in the provoked condition.
In experiment two, the subjects were exposed to stimuli in order to study Poetzl effects, conflict and defense.
The results found no assimilation of subliminal material to imagery.
It was found that reports that are regarded as defensive in imagery therapy (e.g., inability to imagine repetitions), were not motivated by anxiety.
Both general and specific increases in defensive reports were found in provoked conditions.
Westerlund, B. (1986). On reading subliminal sentences: a psychodynamic activation study. Lund University. Psychological Research Bulletin, 26 (10), p. 18.
Westerlund, B.E. & Terjestam, Y.C. (1987). Psychodynamic effects of subliminal verbal messages on tachistoscopically presented interpersonal stimuli. Lund University. Psychological Research Bulletin, 27 (3), p. 21.
Whitehead, J.C. (1980). Vance, J., Vance, E.J.R., Vance, P., Robertson, A., -vs- Judas Priest, CBS et al. Motion for summary judgements for closing arguments. Case No. 86-5844 and 86-3939. Dept. No. 1. Judicial District Court of the State of Nevada in and for the County of Washoe.
Honorable Jerry Carr Whitehead discusses CBS's argument that subliminal communication is protected under the first amendment rights.
Whittaker, R. (1975). Subliminal Perception: Myth or Magic? Educational Broadcasting, 8 (6), pp 17-22.
Whittaker reviews significant research on subliminal perception and summarizes the evidence for and against it.
Wiener, M. & Kleespies, P. (1968). Some comments and data on partial cue controversy and other matters relevant to investigations of subliminal phenomena: rejoinder. Perceptual Motor Skills, 27 (3), pp 847-846. ISSN: 0031-5125.
Williams, L.J. & Evans, J.R. (1980). Evidence for perceptual defense using a lexical decision task. University of South Carolina. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 50 (1), pp 195-198. ISSN: 0031-5125.
Leonard Williams and James Evans studied perceptual defense using a lexical decision task.
In a tachistoscopic experiment using a lexical-decision task, the subjects responded to 64 4-, 5- and 6-letter, 1- and emotional (taboo) and nonemotional (neutral) words.
It was predicted that a) the subjects would be more likely to call a taboo word a nonword than they would be to call a neutral word a nonword, b) the reaction times (RTs) to taboo words would be longer than nonwords, and c) there would be differences in RTs and in accuracy of recognition of taboo words vs. nonwords depending on the visual hemifield to which the stimulus was projected.
The results showed that emotional words were not responded to as quickly or as accurately as nonemotional words.
This suggests evidence for perceptual defense uncontaminated by response bias.
Winett, R.L. (1981). The comparative effects of literal and metaphorical subliminal stimulation on the activation of oedipal fantasies in dart-throwing performance and word recall tasks. University of Montana. Dissertation Abstracts International, 42 (6-B), p. 2557. ISSN: 0419-4209.
Wolford, G., Marchak, F. & Hughes, H. (1988). Practice effects in backward masking. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 14 (1), pp 101-112.
George Wolford, Frank Marchak and Howard Hughes of Dartmouth College reported on two experiments demonstrating practice effects that occur in backward masking studies.
Worrell, L. & Worrell, J. (1966). An experimental and theoretical note on "conscious and preconscious influences on recall." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 3 (1), pp 119-123.
Worthington, A.G. (1964). Effect of subliminal structural cues on reproductions of a simple line drawing. Perceptual and Motor Skills, pp 823-882.
Worthington, A.G. (1966). Generalized phenomena associated with previous pairings of UCS (shock) and subliminal visual stimuli. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 3 (6), pp 634-644. ISSN: 0022-3514.
Worthington, A.G. & Dixon, N.F. (1964). Changes in guessing habits as a function of subliminal stimulation. Acta Psychology, 22.
Worthington, A.G. & Dixon, N.F. (1968). Subthreshold perceptions of stimulus-meaning. Trent University, Ontario, Canada. American Journal of Psychology, 81 (3), pp 453-456. ISSN: 0002-9556.
This article refutes the conclusions reached by J.A. McNulty, F.J. Dockrill and B.A. Levy in experiments on discrimination without awareness.
Yager, E.K. (1987). Subliminal Therapy: utilizing the unconscious mind. Medical Hypnoanalysis Journal, 2 (4), pp 138-147.
Zanot, E.J. & Maddox, L.M. (1982). Subliminal Advertising and Education. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism, Athens, OH.
As a results of claims that the academic community ignores the subject of subliminal advertising, Eric Zanot and Lynda Maddox designed a study to ascertain; a) the degree to which the topic is introduced in the classroom, b) the opinions offered by professors concerning it, and c) the source with which they acquaint their students.
The results led to six conclusions; 1) the professors were fully cognizant of the concept of subliminal advertising, and they teach it in their classes, 2) although it is discussed in a wide variety of classes, little class time is devoted to subliminal advertising, 3) subliminal advertising is also discussed in a variety of other departments, 4) educators in advertising or marketing departments teach that subliminal advertising is seldom or never used, and when they do offer opinions, they say it is unethical, unacceptable or harmless, 5) Wilson Brian Key is the source commonly associated with the topic by professors when they name individuals or sources, 6) there are no correlations between what professors say about subliminal advertising and their ages, teaching or professional experience, or whether they teach in an advertising or marketing context.
Zanot, E.J., Pincus, J.D. & Lamp, E.J. (1983). Public perceptions of subliminal advertising. University of Maryland, College of Journalism, College Park. Journal of Advertising, 12 (1), pp 39-45. ISSN: 0091-3367.
Eric Zanot, J. David Pincus, and E. Joseph Lamb conducted a telephone survey which revealed that; 1) 81% of the subjects had knowledge of subliminal advertising (SA), 2) an equal percentage of those who claimed knowledge of SA believed that it was currently being used in advertising, 3) the subjects believed SA to be unethical and harmful by a 2:1 ratio, although a smaller percentage stated that they would change their buying behavior if they thought a particular advertiser was using subliminal techniques, 4) awareness of SA was related to race, income, and education, and 5) the individual most likely to have heard of subliminal advertising was white, well-education and with a $20,000+ income.
Zenhausern, R., Ciaiola, M. & Pompo. C. (1973). Subliminal and supraliminal stimulation and two trapezoid illusions. St. John's University, NY. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 37 (1), pp 251-256.
Robert Zenhausern, Michael Ciaiola and Claude Pompa investigated the effect of subliminal and supraliminal accessory stimulation (white noise) on two dynamic perceptual illusions.
Only the most extreme subliminal stimulation (30 decibels below threshold) was effective, significantly increasing the number of illusory experiences.
The effect was consistent across subjects and perceptual conditions.
Both the magnitude and the direction of the effect could be supported by previous research.
Zenhausern, R. & Hansen, K. (1974). Differential effects of subliminal and supraliminal accessory stimulation on task components in problem-solving. St. John's University, NY. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 38 (2), pp 375-378.
Robert Zenhausern and Karen Hansen studied the effect of subliminal and supraliminal accessory stimulation on the Stencil Design Test.
The results showed that thirty decibels below threshold and 35 decibels above threshold resulted in performance decrement, while 10 decibels below threshold and 60 decibels above threshold led to facilitation.
Comparison with past research provides evidence that accessory stimulation differentially affects various components of the task.
Zenhausern, R., Pompo, C. & Ciaiola, M. (1974). Simple and complex reaction time as a function of subliminal and supraliminal accessory stimulation. St. John's University, NY. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 38 (2), pp 417-418. ISSN: 0031-5125.
Robert Zenhausern, Claude Pompo and Michael Ciaiola tested simple and complex reaction to visual stimuli of subjects underseven levels of accessory stimulation (white noise).
Only the highest level of stimulation (70 db above threshold) lowered the reaction time.
The other levels had no effect.
Zenhausern. R. & Zwosta, M. (1969). Application of signal detection theory to subliminal and supraliminal accessory stimulation. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 28, pp 669-704.
Zingirian, M., Molfino A., Levialdi, S. & Trillo, M. (1971). Monocular and binocular responses to liminal and subliminal stimuli. Ophthalmologica, 162 (1), pp 41-50. ISSN: 0030-3755.
Zuckerman, M. (1960). The effects of subliminal and supraliminal suggestion on verbal productivity. Journal of Abnormal Social Psychology, 60.
Zuckerman, S.G. (1981). An experimental study of underachievement: The effects of subliminal merging and success-related stimuli on the academic performance of bright, underachieving high school students. New YorK University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 41 (12-B, Pt. 1), pp 4699-4670. ISSN: 0419-4209.
Susan Zuckerman examined the effect of the subliminal presentation of "symbiotic-gratification" and "sanctioned success-gratification" stimuli on the academic performance of bright underachieving adolescents.
This study utilized Silverman's "subliminal psychodynamic activation" method (1976, 1978 and 1980).
The subjects were assigned to view one of three messages; 1) "mommy and I are one", symbiotic-gratification, 2) "my success is ok", success gratification, and 3) "people are walking", neutral control.
The hypotheses being tested were; 1) students stimulated with either the mommy or the success message would achieve higher grade than students stimulated with the people message, and 2) students stimulated with with either of the wish-related messages would show more positive self-concepts and be less anxious and depressed than the control students.
The results confirmed the two main hypotheses.
The most important finding, however, was the differential effectiveness of the experimental messages by sex.
The message "mommy and I are one" was found to be adaptation-enhancing for boys and conflictual for girls.
For both sexes, the mommy message was found to be the most effective and beneficial to the extent that they were; 1) initially more differentiated from mother and father, and 2) low in fear of success.
The message "my success is ok" was found to be generally beneficial for girls and non-effective for boys.
For girls, the message enabled aspects of the underlying conflict to surface. Thus, girls performed better academically, but showed lower need achievement and trends towards increased affect and lower self-father differentiation.
Zwosta, M. & Zenhausern, R. (1969). Application of signal detection theory to subliminal and supraliminal accessory stimulation. Naussau County Youth Board, Mineola, NY. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 28 (3), pp 699-704.
Marianne Zwosta and Robert Zenhausern determined the effect of subliminal and supraliminal accessory stimulation (white noise) on a visual detection task through the use of the Theory of Signal Detection (SDT).
Both the most extreme level of subliminal stimulation (-15db) and the most extreme level of supraliminal stimulation (+15 db) resulted in the greatest increase in sensitivity, but neither had any effect on the subject's criteria.